Skip to main content

Full text of "A note-book of mediaeval history, A.D. 323- A.D. 1453"

See other formats

: l 



A.D. 333— A.D. 1453 















This Note-book is an attempt to arrange the chief 
lines in the European history of the Middle Ages : 
(1) according to order of time ; (2) without division 
by countries, or by any other method except the 
chronological ; (3) in comparatively short periods ; 
(4) with inclusion of fairly copious reference to the 
history of culture and civilization as well as to that of 
politics. Under Civilization I try to give some notes 
on the history of European Literature, Commerce and 
Industry, Discovery and Invention, Science and Art, 
Philosophy and Religion. The history of the Church 
especially — Eastern and Western — has been treated 
with an endeavour to recognize its unique importance 
during most of this time — from the fourth to the 
fifteenth century of Christ. 

In many ways the Middle Ages bear more directly 
on our present life and problems — our trivial lives and 
fortunes in the twentieth century — than more ' modern ' 
times. Especially is this apparent from the study of 
nationalism. This is the force which dominates the 
politics, and sometimes devastates the countries, of 
the present day ; the same force creates the modern 
nations in the Middle Ages. The volcano never really 
sleeps ; but its energies, in some respects, are perhaps 


less fierce in the times and through the action of the 
Classical Renaissance and the Protestant Revolution. 
Both Germany and France may, perhaps, be thought 
to bear some witness in this case. 

I owe thanks especially to the suggestions of Professor 
Tout and Professor Tait, of Manchester, and to Miss 
C. Vaudrey for valuable clerical help. 

C. R. B. 
January 1917. 






















323-375 1-6 

375-410 7-13 

410-476 14^18 

General View op the State op 

Europe about 476 . . . 19-22 

476-527 23-26 

527-565 27-33 

565-632 34-41 

632-732 42^9 

732-800 50-66 

800-843 57-61 

843-888 62-69 

888-919 70-72 

919-962 73-76 

962-987 77-81 

987-1002 82-84 

General View op the State of 

Europe about 1000 . . . 85-87 

1002-1048 88-95 

1048-1096 96-107 

1096-1122 108-113 

1122-1154 11<L-120 

1154-1187 121-126 

1187-1215 127-136 

1215-1250 137-144 




XXII. 1250-1270 .... 

XXIII. 1270-1303 .... 

General View of the State 
Europe about 1303 . 

XXIV. 1303-1338 .... 
XXV. 1338-1378 .... 

XXVI. 137&-1415 .... 
XXVII. 1415-1453 .... 





. 166-172 

. 173-182 

. 184-19E 

. 196-20 1 ; 

General View of the State of 

Europe about 1453 . . . 208-2K 

Index 218-224 


(< VOLKERWANDERUNG '), 323-75 A.D. 

General Points 

1. The Roman Empire remains practically intact through- 
out this period. The civilization, power, and territory of 
the Helleno-Roman World are only changed in religion. 
Otherwise ' ancient conditions ' continue. But a new, 
Oriental, capital (Constantinople) is given to the Empire. 

2. The adoption of Christianity by the State and 
governing classes, which is the first important step from 
the Ancient World to the Mediaeval (and Modern), is 
the supreme feature of this time. Julian's attempt at 
a Pagan restoration is a failure. The ' Orthodox ' and 
' Catholic ' Church, organized as the established Church 
of the Empire (a new thing), holds its first ' General Coun- 
cil ', in which the belief of the Christian community is 

3. The great movement of the Barbarian peoples into 
the Roman World — the Wandering of the Nations — begins 
at the end of this period, but really belongs to the next. 



323 Constantino the Great (joint-emperor from 306, sole 
emperor 323-37) becomes a Christian catechumen ; he is 
only baptized on his death-bed. In large measure he recog- 
nizes Christianity as the most favoured State religion. Yet he 
abstains from open war against Pagan cults as a whole, pro- 
fessing indeed a wish to reform them. His court remains 
largely, his bureaucracy almost wholly, Pagan. But he 
forbids the State sacrifices of Paganism, and the occult 
and openly immoral parts of Pagan worship (witchcraft, 
divination, ' evil magic ', ' lying oracles ', and the religious 
orgies of certain Oriental rites and their imitators in the 
West). This involves the neglect and disfavour of Pagan 
beliefs and cults, as Christianity will not, like other creeds 
of the Graeco-Roman World, take the position of one 
among many. 

1 The Christianity of Constantine must be allowed in a 
more . . . vague and qualified sense [than often asserted] : 
the nicest accuracy is required in tracing the . . . grada- 
tions by which the monarch declared himself the Protector, 
and at length the Proselyte, of the Church ' [Gibbon, ch. xx]. 

Probably Constantine admitted Christianity as ' a true 
religion' (i.e. as a faith, at any rate, beneficial and ennobling 
to Man and the State) long before he granted its claim to 
be the only true religion. 

' During his reign the stream of Christianity flowed with 
a gentle, though accelerated, motion ' [Gibbon, ch. xx]. 

324, &c. (First) Church of St. John Lateran, Rome (the proper 
Cathedral of the Popes), built by Constantine. 

c. 325- Churches and other buildings of the Emperor Constantine 
S36, &c. and his mother Helena at Jerusalem and Bethlehem (' the 
Holy Sepulchre', 'the Nativity', &c). 

The fable of ' Constantine' s Donation ', supported by 
forgeries of the eighth and ninth centuries [see 772, 860], 
associated Constantine' s ' establishment ' of the Catholio 

PERIOD I : [323-75 A.D 3 

Church with a supposed endowment. Constantine ' with- 
drew from the . . . patrimony of St. Peter . . . founding 
a new capital in the East ; and resigned to the Popes the 
free and perpetual sovereignty of Rome, Italy, and . . . the 
West' [Gibbon, ch. xlix]. So Dante: 

'Ah, Constantine — of how much ill was mother, 
Not thy conversion, but that marriage-dower, 
Which the first wealthy Father took from thee.' 

[Inferno, xix.] 

Council of Nicaea. The First General (' Oecumenical ') 325 
Council of the Christian Church meets under the protection 
of the emperor, at Nicaea (Nikaia) in Bithynia, close to 
the city already selected for the new imperial capital 

This Council condemns Arianism (the doctrine of Areios 
or Arius of Alexandria, which did not recognize the absolute 
Godhead of Christ), and asserts the ' Athanasian ' and 
' Catholic ' belief, championed by Athanasius, Bishop of 
Alexandria (296-373). 

This is the most important of the early doctrinal struggles 
of Christianity, and the subsequent development of both 
the Roman and Greek portions of the Church largely 
depends on it. 

The greater part of the Nicene Creed, in which the 
divinity of Christ is elaborately stated (. . . ' Very God of 
Very God, Begotten not Made, being of One Substance 
with the Father ' . . .), is also issued in its first form by 
this Council (completed by Council of Constantinople, 381). 

Development of Christian pilgrimage. (' Bordeaux pil- 
grim ' to Jerusalem, 333 — the first important record of 
Christian pilgrim-travel.) 

Old St. Peter's, Rome, ' which for size has no equal in 326, &e. 
the world ', the principal church of Western Christendom, 
built by Constantine. (It is demolished and rebuilt as the 
present St. Peter's in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.) 



330 Byzantium chosen by Constantine as the New Capital of the 
Empire ; its name is to be changed to ' New (or Second) 
Rome ', Nova Roma ; but the popular tendency conquers, 
and the new capital becomes the ' City of Constantine ', 
Constantinopolis. The planting of the court at Con- 
stantinople completes a transition which has long been at 
work (int. ah, through dislike of recent emperors to Rome 
itself). Diocletian (284-305) had fixed his seat at Nico- 
media (Nikomedeia) in NW. Asia Minor, while his nominal 
Colleague and real" Viceroy, Maximian, though living in 
Italy, had neglected Rome, and resided at Milan. 

Even after 395 Western Emperors reside not at Rome, 
but at Ravenna, like the ' exarchs ' after 560 (see p. 29). 

Imperial Constantinople, immensely enlarged from old 
Byzantium (perhaps ten times larger under Constantine, 
still further increased in the next century), is soon equal 
to Rome in population, and superior in wealth ; as a first- 
class harbour it develops a great trade. From the fifth 
century (if not from the fourth) to the beginning of the 
thirteenth it is certainly the largest, richest, and most luxurious 
city of the Christian world. From its refoundation it is, 
moreover, a Christian city, and for a time the political 
capital of Christendom. But it never succeeds in becoming 
the spiritual capital. 

The Bishops of Constantinople rank, from this time, 
among the chiefs of the Christian hierarchy (' Patriarchs '), 
but the vague primacy already accorded to the Bishops of Rome 
becomes more and more definitely asserted and admitted, 
and is gradually transformed into a complete supremacy 
over the greater part of Christendom [all the West]. 

The history of Christian Constantinople (330-1453) is 

curiously coincident with the mediaeval period as a whole. 

c# 330- Beginnings of Christian monastic communities in Egypt 

340 (solitary monasticism goes back much earlier — in Egypt 

at least to about a.d. 250). 

PERIOD 1 : 323-75 A.D. 5 

Constantine reorganizes the Empire somewhat after the c. 339- 
Diocletian manner (four prefectures — the East, Illyricum, 37 
Italy, Gaul ; subdivided into civil dioceses and provinces). 
He also carries on the tendency towards an Oriental despotic 
court, with elaborate ceremonial, and remodels the taxa- 
tion. He maintains peace and order throughout the Roman 
World, and secures the safety of the Empire against foreign 

At the end of his life he makes full profession of Chris- 337 
tianity (see above, 323), and divides the Empire, again 
imitating Diocletian, among his three sons as joint Augusti, 
with two nephews as Caesars. This system, which had 
worked well under Diocletian, is a failure in the family 
of Constantine, 337-50. 

Death of Eusebius, ' father of Church history ' (born 340 
about 267 ; Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, 313 ; friend 
and confidant of Constantine the Great, who put him on 
his right hand at the Council of Nicaea). His Ecclesiastical 
History, the earliest important work of its kind, is of high 

Progress of Christianity among the Teutonic tribes border- C. 348 
ing the Empire. ' Ulfilas ' (Wulfila), ' apostle ' and bishop 
of the Goths (b. 311), heads a settlement of Gothic Chris- 
tians within the Empire — in the later Bulgaria, 348 [see 
also 375]. Ulfilas' s translation of the Bible (minus Samuel, 
Kings, and Chronicles, books dangerously stimulating to 
a warlike people), the oldest monument of Teutonic speech. 

After thirteen years of unsatisfactory division, civil war, 350 
and general weakening of the Empire, Constantius, the 
second son of Constantine, reunites the Empire. He 
appoints his cousin Julian, ' the Apostate ', as Viceroy 
(' Caesar ') in Gaul, 356. 

Death of Antony ' of the Thebaid ', the chief leader of 356 
the new Christian monasticism, in its first home, Egypt. 


This movement had spread to Rome by 341 ; thence, in 
modified forms, it reaches other countries of the West. 
But the true western monasticism begins in the sixth 
century, with St. Benedict [see below, p. 33], 

Jealous of Julian's successes in government and war 
(victories over Alamanni at Strassburg, 357, &c), Con- 
stantius attempts to weaken his army, and thus provokes 
a fresh civil war. At the beginning of this, Constantius 
dies, and Julian becomes sole emperor. 
361_3 Reign of Julian. Hating Christianity (which he had 
professed up to the war with Constantius, and then re- 
pudiated : hence the title of ' Apostate ', Apostata, applied 
to him by Catholic writers), he is devoted to Greek philo- 
sophy, and makes the restoration of Paganism, in a philo- 
sophical and purified form, the principal object of his reign. 

Project to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem. 

Julian's expedition against the Persians, at first success- 
ful, ends in failure and in the death of the emperor (' Vicisti 
Galilaee ' legend). 
363-4 His successor, the Christian Jovian, to save the army 
which had elected him, concludes an ignominious peace 
with Persia, ceding the provinces beyond the Tigris, 
with part of Mesopotamia, and abandoning the Roman 
supremacy over Armenia. 

363 Christianity restored as an official and privileged faith 
of the Empire. Steady decline of Paganism, no revival of 
which is seriously undertaken after Julian's death. 

364 Valentinian, elected emperor by the army after the death 
of Jovian, appoints his brother Valens as co-emperor in 
the East. 

373 Death of St. Athanasius (b. 296 ; Bishop of Alexandria, 
326-73), the leading champion of the doctrine of the 
divinity of Christ against Arius and Arianism. The victory 
of Athanasius marks an epoch in the history of Christianity. 



General Points 

1. The first important stages of the great migrations— 
1 the Wandering of the Nations '—fall within these years. 
Germanic (with Slavonic and other) races press into the 
Empire, capture Rome itself, and begin to beat down 
resistance in the west of Europe. 

2. The old civilization in great part begins to crumble 
away, certain elements being protected by the Church, 
which to some extent prevents a complete relapse into 
barbarism. The Germanic and other conquerors gradually 
learn to value the tradition of Greece and Rome. 

3. The increasing power and the civilizing spirit of the 

Christian Church are shown in this time (still more later), 
in the Church's dealings both with the northern con- 
querors and with the Old Empire, under the last emperor 
of the whole Roman World, Theodosius I. 

4. The fall of the old Helleno-Roman Paganism is 
outwardly complete by about 400 in the chief centres of 


Under Augustus fails the only serious Roman attempt 
at the conquest of the German peoples. From the end of 
the second century a. d., Germanic attacks dangerously 
trouble the Roman frontiers. In the middle of the third 
century, during the first period of Roman decline and 
disintegration (the so-called ' Thirty Tyrants of Rome ', 
&c), Goths and others break through the frontier defences, 
and the fall of the Empire seems at hand. But by the 
imperial restoration of Aurelian and his successors the 
dissolution of the Roman World is deferred for over a 
century. Now the time of dissolution approaches for the 

The storm, however, breaks in the East. 

c. 375 At this time the East Goths are chiefly settled on the 
north and north-west of the Black Sea, up to the Roman 
(Danube) frontier ; the West Goths in (modern) South Ru- 
mania and East Hungary (formerly the Roman Dacia — till 
about a.d. 180 the Goths are mainly to be found in the 
basin of the Vistula) ; — the Vandals are in West Hungary ; 
the Franks on the Lower Rhine ; the Lombards on the 
Lower Elbe ; the Saxons between Elbe and Rhine. A part 
of the Gothic race, converted to Arian Christianity by 
Wulfila (' Ulfilas ') in the early and mid fourth century, 
have settled within the Empire south of the Lower Danube, 
348, &c. [see above]. 

Pressed by attacks from other races on the side of Asia 
(Huns crossing the Volga, Alans, &c), the East and 
West Goths move forward to the south and west ; many 
more of the Christian Goths (mainly West-Gothic) are 
allowed to pass into the Empire, where they join their fellow 
countrymen south of the Danube, 375 [see also 348]. 

Meantime, beyond the Danube, the empire of the Huns 
extends itself, embracing many conquered Germanic tribes ; 
seventy years later, under Attila, it threatens all Europe. 

PERIOD II : 375-410 9 

The Gothic colonists becoming discontented with the 375-8 
arrangements made for them, fierce disputes follow with 
Roman officials, and war breaks out. In the battle of 
Adrianople, 378, Valens is defeated and killed, and the 
dissolution of the Empire now really begins. 

Its progress is for the moment retarded by Valens's 
successor in the Empire of the East, Theodosius the 
Great, who makes a compromise with the Goths, after 
checking their advance, and recognizes them as ' allies of 
the Empire ' officially settled within its borders in Moesia 
(Bulgaria) and Thrace, 379. 

Theodosius, a Catholic Christian, succeeding the Arian 379-95 
Valens, becomes the greatest lay head and protector of 
the Church, as well as the most commanding and efficient 
political force, since Constantine. 

The connexion of Church and State under Theodosius is 
illustrated by the following : 

(a) The Second great General Council of the Christian 381 
Church, at Constantinople, 381, summoned by 
Theodosius, completes the Nicene Creed, and assigns 
to Rome the first, and to Constantinople the second, 
place among Christian sees. 

(6) Theodosius, excommunicated by Ambrose, Bishop 390 
of Milan, for barbarous cruelty in suppression 
of a rebellion in Thessalonica, does penance at 
(c) Theodosius prohibits Pagan worship throughout the 392 
Empire. Rapid decay of Paganism in the towns. 
Its longer life in the country (pagus, hence 
1 Pagans ', &c). 
From 388, when he saves his colleague in the West, 
Valentinian II, from dethronement, he is practically master 
of the Roman World, and in 394 he unites, for a moment 394 
and for the last time, the whole Empire under one head 


(except for the independent Gothic colony in Bulgaria 
[Moesia] and Thrace). 
395 But by the death of Theodosius, a year later, the Roman 
Empire is again, and for ever, divided into Eastern and 
Western sections. 

1 . Of these the EASTERN, which in later time (especially 
after the outbreak of Islam in the seventh century) we 
know as the BYZANTINE EMPIRE, and which is the sole 
lineal successor of Old Rome throughout the Middle 
Ages, lasts as one of the great states of the world till the 
Turkish invasions of the eleventh century [see 1071, &c], 
and even till the Latin conquest of 1204 [see this year]. 

It is not finally destroyed till the capture of Constanti- 
nople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 

2. The WESTERN EMPIRE, on the other hand, becomes 
completely the prey of the Northern Barbarians (Goths, 
Vandals, Franks, Burgundians, Saxons, &c.) in the fifth 
century, and the line of Western Roman Emperors is finally 
extinguished in 476. 

The so-called ' Restoration of the Empire ' in the West 
by the Papal coronation of the Frankish king Charles the 
Great (' Charlemagne ') in 800, and again by the coronation 
of the German king Otto I in 962 (' the Holy Roman 
Empire of the German Nation ' ; see 800, 962), are not, 
of course, except in idea, revivals of the old Roman Empire 
of the Caesars. They are evidence — 

(a) of the growth of the new nations of the West, 

(b) of the influence of the old civilized tradition, 

(c) of the influence of the Church. 

The Empire, at the death of Theodosius, thus divided 
between Arcadius (Arkadios) — who takes the East, and 
has his capital at Constantinople, and Honorius — who 
takes the West, and has his capital first at Borne, but after 
402 at Ravenna — is attacked anew, and fatally, by the 

PERIOD II : 375-410 11 

Five Chief Movements op the New Nations 395-41 

{a) Gothic ; (6) Vandalic, &c. ; (c) Frankish ; (d) Bur- 
gundian ; (e) Anglo-Saxon. 

(a) The Goths, settled in the Balkan Peninsula, enraged 
at not getting their stipulated pay from Arcadius, rise under 
their king Alaric, ravage Macedonia, Greece, &c, establish 
themselves afresh in IUyria, and invade Italy without 401-8 
decisive success, being checked by Honorius's guardian, 

the great general and statesman Stilicho, himself a Vandal. 

Abolition of the gladiatorial shows at Rome and so, 402 (?) 
within a few years, throughout the Empire. (Combats 
with beasts in arena continue longer.) 

Death of St. John Chrysostom (b. 347 ; Patriarch of 407 
Constantinople, 398), greatest of early Christian orators 
and one of the leading Greek Fathers, a very important 
and attractive figure in early Christianity. 

Murder of Stilicho, by order of Honorius. 408 

Death of Claudian (Claudius Claudianus, b. about 363), 408 
often called the last of the Latin classical poets. 

Fall of Rome. The Goths under Alaric again invade 409-10 
Italy, besiege and retire from Rome, return, capture, and 
sack the city (410). ['Eleven hundred and sixty-three 
years after the reputed foundation of Rome, the Imperial 
city, which had subdued and civilized so considerable 
a part of mankind, was delivered to . . . the tribes of 
Germany and Scythia.' — Gibbon.] 

(b) Vandals, Alans, Suabians (Suevi), &c, hard pressed 
by the Franks, leave their settlements in the Danube 
valley (406), break into Gaul, and thence make their way 
into Spain, great part of which (especially in South and 
West) they conquer [409, &c. ; now begins Mediaeval 
Spain] ; 


(c) While the Salian Franks occupy much of Northern 
Oaul [now France really begins] ; 

(d) The Burgundians part of Eastern Gaul, especially 
Alsace [here begins Burgundy] — both subsequently moving 
South, and 

(e) The Saxons, Frisians, &c, raid part of Britain (' the 
Saxon Shore ', &c). 

The collapse of the old Roman Imperial system here 
shown by Honorius, in 410, releasing the inhabitants of 
Britain from their allegiance, as the emperor can no longer 
protect them. Already, in 401, the Roman troops have 
been withdrawn. 

Note, that as the various Germanic tribes press into the 
Roman world and leave their original lands practically 
deserted, Slavonic races occupy the vacant territories, 
and thus all the lands east of the Elbe (and many regions 
to the west) become Slavonic. These lands are gradually 
conquered by the Germans, as far as the farthest limits 
of the old classical Germania, and far beyond, in centuries 
of struggle, especially from 928 to 1400 [see below, 928, 1134, 
1226, &c.]. 

One chief interest of this period (375-410), as of those 
that precede and follow, lies in the growth of Christianity 
and of the Church organization. 

Note especially : 

(i) The development and importance of the Episcopal 
and Sacerdotal system. 

(ii) The development of Sacramental doctrine, and of 
symbolic Ritual. 

(iii) The development of Christian Monasticism ; at first 
mainly Oriental and centred in Egypt. 

(iv) The progress of Christianity among the Teutonic and 
other invaders of the Empire [see above, 348, 375]. 

Immense impression produced by the fall of Rome. 

Two things universally recognized : 

PERIOD II : 375-410 13 

(i) The collapse of the old political order in the West, 

(ii) The triumph of Christianity. The two connected 
as effect and cause by Pagan opinion. Christian 
replies, especially by Augustine in the Be Civitale 
Dei (the ' City of Man ' has fallen ; but the ' City 
of God ' — the Church — remains). 
Intellectual development of the Church at this time : 
Augustine, Bishop of Hippo Regius in N. Africa [354- 
430], greatest of the early Latin Doctors of the Church, 
and a chief shaper of Roman theology ; Ambrose, Bishop 
of Milan [340-97; see above], author of Te Deum (?) ; 
Cyril of Jerusalem, 315-86 ; John Chrysostom, 347-407 
[see 407]. 

Cyril of Alexandria, 376-444, an eloquent orator, a 
virulent controversialist, an untiring organizer, and man 
of affairs ; with Athanasius and Origen, the most famous 
name in the Church of Egypt ; to his admirers ' the 
Thirteenth Apostle '. 

End of Latin classical poetry. 

Claudian, 363-408 ; Rutilius Namatianus, fl. 400-15. 


WEST (410-76) 

General Points t 

1. The Wandering of the Nations is now at its height. 

The Northern invaders, Germanic and others, now begin 
their permanent settlements in Spain and Gaul [mainly 
Gothic], and in England [Anglo-Saxon] ; as well as their 
temporary dominion in Italy and Illyricum [mainly Gothic] 
and in North Africa [Vandal]. In this process they make 
an end of the Western Empire. 

For a time the Huns threaten the destruction of all 
Europe, but this peril passes away after 452. 

2. The storm of the Barbarian invasions, which first 
especially threatened the Eastern provinces, now passes by 
almost entirely to the West ; and the Roman Empire in 
the East, organized, governed, and led from Constantinople, 
each decade becoming less Roman and more Greek and 
Oriental, enjoys a long period of comparative peace, quiet, 
and prosperity. 

3. In the shipwreck of so much of the Old Civilization, 
especially in the West, the Church becomes constantly 
more important as the saviour of every conservative and 
cultured element. The intellectual development of Chris- 
tianity at this time is remarkable : in the earlier fifth 
century it reaches a higher point than at any time before 
the thirteenth. All this is interrupted and shattered by 
the success of the Barbarian invasions. 

4. And one of the best auguries for the future of the 
West is that the Barbarian Conquerors begin so rapidly to 
pass over to Christianity, though at first mainly in the 
Arian form. 

PERIOD III : 410-76 15 

Six Chief Movements of the New Nations 

(a) Gothic ; (6) Vandalic ; (c) Burgundian ; (d) Ala- 
mannic ; (e) Anglo-Saxon ; (/) Hunnish. 

(a) Goths. After Alaric's death in South Italy, his 414, &c. 
brother-in-law and successor, Athaulf (' Adolf '), who 
marries Placidia, the sister of Honorius, leads the Goths 
out of Italy into Southern Gaul and Spain (a providential 
deliverance to Honorius and his subjects), and founds the 
Gothic dominion there. 

Some of the Gothic leaders, it is said, aspired to blot out 
Rome altogether, and erect on its ruins a Gothic capital and 
empire. They were gradually ' convinced that laws were 
essential ' to the well-being of a state, and ' thought more 
of restoring and retaining the Roman Empire than of 
subverting it ' [Gibbon]. 

' Assuming the character of a Roman general ', Athaulf 
' directed his march from the extremity of Campania to 
the southern provinces of Gaul.' 

Honorius grants South Gaul to the Goths, under imperial 
suzerainty, 415 ; thus arises 

(a) the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse, gradually 

absorbed by the Franks in the sixth century, as 
well as 

(b) the Visigothic kingdom of Spain, with its capital at 

Toledo, overthrown by the Muhammadans in the 
eighth century [see 711]. 
[' The Goths first win for themselves a local habitation 
and a place on the map when they leave Italy to establish 
themselves in the further West.' — Freeman.] 

The Visigothic pressure extends into the regions of 
S. Spain, lately ruled by the Vandals. 

Though the main Gothic force has now left Italy, the 
imperial power in the West, in the last stages of its help- 


lessness, rests upon Gothic and other Barbarian merce- 
naries, especially from 456, and these latter put an end to 
the Western Empire in 476. 

429, &C. > (b) Vandals. From Southern Spain the Vandals and 
Alans, already settled here as conquerors [from 409, see 
above], cross over to Africa in 429, &c, led by the 
Vandal Gaiseric (Genseric), and conquer the greater part 
of 'Barbary' (Carthage falls 439). The Vandal kingdom 
of NW. Africa lasts over a century, 429-534, till 
destroyed by the Imperial Revival under Justinian. 

Remarkable development of Vandal sea-power. Vandal 
fleets attack and pillage Rome (455), conquer some of 
the Western Mediterranean islands, and destroy the security 
of West Mediterranean commerce. 
430 Death of St. Augustine of Hippo [see above, p. 13]. 

(c) The Burgundians moving southwards, out of Alsace 
or Elsass [see above, p. 12], settle in the lands of the later 
Duchy and County of Burgundy (valley of the Saone, &c.) ; 

443, &c. * ; (d) The Alamanni occupy the lands they [the Burgundians] 
have just vacated (modern Alsace, &c), 443 ; and 

449, &c. ; ' (e) The Low German tribes of Engles, Saxons, and Jutes 

attack Britain, and begin the 'Anglo-Saxon Conquest' of 

the eastern part of the island (from 449). Kent is probably 

the first region of the 'Saxon Shore' to be thoroughly 


Lastly — 

450-3 (/) The Huns (who served under Alaric, in great numbers) 

begin to move again (in their army are contingents of many 

conquered peoples). Under their king Attila (Etzel) they 

451 break into Gaul, besiege Orleans without success, and are 

defeated by a combined army of Roman troops, Goths, 

Franks, and Burgundians, under the Roman general Aetius, 

in the battle of Chalons-sur-Marne (' Catalaunian Fields '). 

PERIOD III : 410-76 17 

Repulsed from Gaul, the Huns next year throw them- 452 
selves upon Italy, destroy Aquileia, waste the North Italian 
plain, but are induced to turn back by a Roman embassy 
headed by Pope Leo I ('St. Leo the Great '). 

Refugees from Aquileia and neighbouring coast lands, 
flying before the Huns to the islands of the Venetian 
lagoon, lay the foundations of Venice. 

Death of Attila ; break-up of the Hun Empire. 453 

The Hun invasions threatened the civilized world with 
the same absolute barbarism, destruction of city life and 
all culture, as the early Mongol conquests in the thirteenth 
century [see below, p. 137, &c.]. Their defeat is therefore 
of vital importance. 

Meantime the 'Western Empire', now reduced to the 
court of the nominal Roman Sovereigns in Italy, becomes 
a puppet in the hands of the Barbarian Conquerors or 
Mercenaries in Italy. Thus Attalus, made anti-emperor 
by Alaric, on the eve of the fall of Rome, 409, convenes 
the Senate, and announces his resolution of ' restoring the 
majesty of the Republic ' and uniting to the Empire the 
provinces of Egypt and the East. Within a year he is 
deposed by the Goths (410), and begs to be allowed to 
follow the Gothic camp. At the wedding of Alaric 's 
successor, Athaulf, in 414, Attalus, ' so long the sport of 
fortune and the Goths ', is chosen to lead the wedding 
chorus, and ' the degraded emperor might aspire to the 
praise of a skilful musician ' [Gibbon]. 

From 456 to 472 Italy is absolutely controlled by Recimir, 456-72 
the commander of the Barbarian mercenaries. 

In 472-3 the Eastern Empire dictates the appointment 472-3 
of its western colleagues. 

From 475 the army-leaders in Italy again control. And 476 
in 476 the line of the Western Emperors becomes extinct with 
the deposition of Romulus Augustulus — himself a son of 

1765 c 


the mercenary leader Orestes — by Odovakar (Odoacer), 
like Recimir, the chief of the ' Barbarian ' generals in Italy. 

By a vote of the Senate, the Western Empire is nominally 
reunited to the Eastern, the sovereign of Constantinople, 
the Emperor Zeno, being recognized as the sole chief of 
the Roman World. 

Practically even Italy is now lost to the Empire. 

Zeno recognizes Odovakar as master of Italy under the 
names of Patrician of Rome and Praefectus Italiae. 

[' The Senate disclaims the necessity, or even the wish, 
of continuing any longer the Imperial succession in Italy — 
the majesty of one monarch is enough to pervade and 
protect East and West alike. It consents that the seat of 
universal empire shall be transferred from Rome to Con- 
stantinople. The Republic (they repeat that name without 
a blush) might safely confide in the virtues of Odoacer, 
and they humbly beg that the Emperor would invest him 
with the title of Patrician and the administration of the 
diocese of Italy.' — Gibbon.] 




EMPIRE (476) 

The authority of Rome and the Roman political system 
have practically ceased everywhere west of the Adriatic, 
except in Northern Gaul. 

The Barbarian invaders, mainly of German race, rule 
(with certain exceptions) in every part of the Western pro- 

I. As to GAUL : 

(a) Part of Northern Gaul, from the Loire to the Somme, 
including all the Seine basin, still remains faithful to 
Rome, under the prefect Syagrius, successor of Aetius : it 
is soon to pass under Frankish rule. 

As to the rest of Gaul : 

(6) The Franks are masters of the North-East, from the 
Somme to the Rhine, with the Meuse and lower Moselle 

(c) The Alamanni control Alsace-Lorraine and the 
Upper Rhine basin from Mainz to the sources of the 

(d) The Burgundians hold nearly all the South-East, 
including the basin of the Saone and of the Upper Rhone. 

(e) The West Goths all the South-West, Middle-West, and 
extreme South, from the Loire to the Pyrenees, Mediter- 
ranean and ocean, including Narbonne and the coast of 

(/) While the peninsula of Brittany (Armorica) is inde- 

II. As to SPAIN : 

Practically all the later kingdoms of Castile, Leon, and 
Aragon, together with South Portugal, are under the West 
Goths, except Gallicia. 



Oallicia is in the hands of the Suevi, also masters of 
Northern Portugal. 

The Asturias mountain-country in the far North is 

III. As to ITALY : 

The whole country, in the Roman Imperial acceptation 
of the term (including much of modern Switzerland and 
the Tirol, and all Istria), together with most of Sicily, but 
not Sardinia or Corsica, forms the province of Odovakar, 
head of a motley crowd of Barbarian soldiers, mainly 
Teutonic, but including Slavonic and other contingents. 

IV. As to AFRICA : 

The Vandals rule from Tangier to modern Tripoli, and 
also in Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearics, and the extreme 
West of Sicily. 

V. As to BRITAIN : 

In the South-East, Jutes, Engles (English), and Saxons 
have begun to conquer and settle (from c. 449). The rest 
of Britain has already been without Roman protection or 
allegiance for nearly three-quarters of a century. 


The ' East Goths ' are settled (but only till 493) in what 
is now South- West Hungary and West and North Serbia. 
In 493 they move into Italy. 


In the Eastern Empire — the bulk of the provinces beyond 
the Adriatic (which, from the time of Diocletian, tend to 
be separately governed, separately considered, and reserved 
as the special dominion and residence of the emperor 
himself) — no Barbarian settlement of any importance has 
become permanent. 


For the East Goths do not stay in SW. Hungary, but 
in 493 move on into Italy [see above]. 

At the beginning of the great migrations, and in the 
fifth century, it seems as if such a permanent settlement 
will be founded just south of the Danube, in what is the 
later Bulgaria. 

But the Gothic tide has flowed away westward, and the 
frontiers of the Empire, below the present Belgrade, remain 
almost the same as they have been since Aurelian gave 
up Dacia. 

A branch of the Gothic race (' Tetraxite ') has settled 
in the southern parts of the Crimea, a region under the 
suzerainty of the Eastern Empire, and here they maintain 
a Germanic language, and something of Germanic life and 
custom, till the sixteenth century. In the thirteenth they 
have numerous and flourishing settlements. 

In ASIA the (Eastern) Empire maintains practically the 
frontier of 363, retaining N. Mesopotamia and part of 
W. Armenia, with the region at the sources of the Tigris, 
but without recovering the trans-Tigris lands ceded after 
the death of Julian. 

In AFRICA she now holds only Egypt and Cyrene. 
State of the CHURCH at this time (c. 476). Immense 
development of its power and activity. Increase of its 
adherents. Perfection of its organization. Its Councils and 

By the Council of Constantinople, 381, the rank of the 
great Bishoprics or Patriarchates has been settled : 1. Rome ; 
2. Constantinople ; 3. Alexandria ; 4. Antioch. 

By the Council of Ephesus, 431, the condemnation has 
been decreed of Nestorius and Nestorianism, an ' early 
and imperfect Protestantism ' ; by the Council of Chal- 
cedon (451), the last of the great general councils, acknow- 
ledged by all the Church, ' Monophysitism ' has been put 
under ban. 


[Nestorius and his followers emphasized the human 
nature in Christ ; objected to the term Theotokos, ' Mother 
of God', applied to the Virgin Mary; were accused by 
their opponents of undermining the doctrine of Christ's 
Divinity. The Monophysites represented an opposite 
extreme : they asserted one nature only in Christ, the 

The Athanasian Creed is perhaps drawn up in this period 
in the Western Church. 

Development of Papal Power in the time of Leo I, ' the 
Great ', and through his assertion of the Petrine theory 
[' Thou art Peter and upon this rock will I build my 
church ', applied to the claim of St. Peter, deriving from 
Christ a supreme position in the Church, which as Bishop 
of Rome he transmits to all his successors in the ' Apostolic 
See ']. 

Conversion of the Barbarians to Arian Christianity — 

Of all the Goths (as we have seen, from Ulfilas, c. 348). 

Of the Burgundians (from c. 460). 

Of the Suevi or Suabians (in Spain, from 469). 

Of the Vandals (from the beginning of the fifth century). 

When the Franks are converted, in 496, to Catholic 
Christianity, they alone, among the new nations, profess 
it. Hence the King of the Franks (and of France) is, later, 
1 Most Christian King ', ' eldest son of the Church '. 

Meantime, Christianity, often of a heretical kind, 
especially Nestorian, has now spread very widely in Asia 
(and to a less degree in Africa), beyond the limits of the 
Roman Empire. 

In Persia, India, and Central Asia — as in Abyssinia and 
Nubia — there are abundant traces of Christian churches 
and missionary enterprise before 476. 

To this same time also belongs the conversion of the 
Irish by Patrick (from 432). 



General Points 

1. The creation of the great Frankish state by Clovis. 
This is the inheritance of Charles Martel and Charles 

the Great, the basis of the new ' Western Empire ' of 800, 
by far the largest and most powerful of the new nations 
as now formed. 

2. The Conversion of the Franks to Catholic Christianity 
secures the ultimate triumph of Catholicism in Western 
Europe over both Heathenism and Heretical (especially 
Arian) Christianity. It also prepares the way for that close 
alliance of the Franks with the Church of Rome, which is 
one main cause of the new Western Empire of 800. 

3. Something like a real Italian state promises to be 
developed through the Ostrogothic Conquest. But this 
promise proves a mirage. 

4. The Anglo-Saxons win all Eastern Britain, and definitely 
make good their position in the country, which through 
them becomes England (Engla-land). 


The [Eastern] Empire at this time, and for half a century 
previous, under Zeno (474r-91), Anastasius (491-518), and 
Justin (474-527), is externally uneventful, but internally 

Formation of a fresh army of native levies. 

Adequate defence of the frontiers. 

Reforms in taxation and administration. Far-reaching 
economies. Accumulation of vast state reserve-funds. 

Useful public works (e.g. the great wall protecting the 
district of Constantinople from Euxine to Propontis). 

C. 477 First definite establishment of the Saxons in England 
(the South Saxons in Sussex). 

Capture of the great Brito-Roman fortress of Anderida, 
or Pevensey, guarding all this part of the south coast. 

481-6 Clovis (Chlodwig, Chlodovech), 481-511, of the Merwing 
or Merovingian House, King of the Salian Franks, conquers 
the last relics of Roman Gaul, the prefecture of Syagrius 
in the north. Battle of Soissons, 486. By this the Frankish 
power becomes supreme over all Northern Gaul. 

489-93, Immediately after this, Theodoric and his people, the 
&c. East Goths or Ostrogoths, settled to the north-east of the 
Adriatic [see above], are commissioned by the Emperor 
Zeno to overthrow and replace Odovakar (489). They 
accept and execute the commission (493), thereby estab- 
lishing a Gothic Arian dominion in Italy (493-553), and 
relieving the Eastern Empire of most of the Gothic pressure 
on the north-west of its territories (the Serbian-Monte- 
negrin-Bosnian regions of to-day). The rule of Theodoric, 
1 the Barbarian Champion of Civilization ', 493-526, shows 
the deep and rapid effect of Roman civilization upon the 
northern invaders. He carefully fosters every trace of 
the ancient culture, and endeavours to make one people 
of Goths and Romans. His work is hindered by both 
racial and religious differences, the Goths remaining Arians. 

PERIOD IV : 476-527 25 

In politics, Theodoric (who stops the Vandal raids upon 
Italy and makes peace with the Vandals) gradually becomes 
the great protector of the Goths against the ever-rising 
power of the Franks. 

[Some have even seen the promise of a genuine Italian 
Kingdom in Theodoric 's work: 'Only in the nineteenth 
century has Italy regained that national unity, which might 
have been hers, before it was attained by any other country 
in Western Europe, if the ambition of emperors and popes, 
and the false sentiment of Roman patriots, had spared the 
goodly tree . . . planted in Italian soil by Theodoric the 
Ostrogoth/ — Hodgkin.] 

The conquest of Hampshire is now begun by the West C. 495 
Saxons under Cerdic and Cynric [Chronicle tradition]. 

The Franks, meanwhile, united under Clovis, and masters 496-511 
of the whole north plain of ' France ', from Loire to Rhine, 
next proceed to 

1. The conquest of the Alamanni in Alsace-Lorraine, 


2. The conquest of the Burgundians in the Dijon region, 


3. The defeat of the West Goths and their expulsion from 

W. Gaul, down to the Garonne, 507, and nearly to 
the Pyrenees, 508. The Gothic dominion in the 
extreme south of Gaul (Septimania and the coastal 
strip, from the Rhone to the Pyrenees, and from 
the Rhone to the Alps) is saved by the defence of 
Aries, and the intervention of Theodoric, who unites 
Provence with his own dominion, and acts as 
guardian for the young West Gothic king in the 
rest of the latter' s dominions. 

After the victory over the Alamanni, in 496, Clovis and 496 
his people accept Catholic Christianity. Clovis and his 
court baptized by Bishop Remigius at Rheims (' Burn what 


thou hast adored : adore what thou hast burned'). With 
this begins the Catholicizing of the Teutonic World ; all the 
future history of Western Christendom is vitally affected 
by this. 
505 Christianity in China (earliest historical evidence : see 
below, p. 30). 

510 The Roman Consulship is bestowed on Clovis by the 
Emperor Anastasius. 

511 On the death of Clovis, the supreme power is divided 
(not by territorial partition) among his four sons, who 
jointly rule the Frankish state and people from the court- 
towns of Metz, Orleans, Paris, and Soissons. 

C 520 The West Saxon advance in Britain is checked, and the 
invaders are kept for the next twenty years to Hampshire. 
523 Final conquest of Burgundy by the Franks. 

At the end of his life Theodoric is embittered by his 
failure to conciliate his Catholic Roman subjects in Italy 
and his discovery of conspiracies against his rule. He 
therefore in 525 executes the Senators Symmachus and 
Boethius, whose De Consolatione Philosophiae is often con- 
sidered as the latest work of ancient philosophy and even of 
classical (prose) Latin, at a time when classical style was 
pretty nearly extinct. Theodoric's minister, Cassiodorus 
(c. 470-562), statesman, historian, orator, educationalist, 
encyclopaedist, writes his History of the Goths, the earliest 
formal history of a Germanic race, preserved only in the 
Abridgement of Jordanes (' Jornandes '). 

Progress of Christianity. 

Extinction of Classical Paganism : its last traces above 
ground in the West belong to the age of Theodoric, who 
enacts death for the practice of Pagan rites. In the East, 
Theodosius II, long before this, in a law of 423, affected to 
question whether there were any Pagans left. Philosophical 
Paganism lingers on to the time of Justinian [see p. 31]. 


General Points 

1. The Revival of the Empire, both in political power 
and civilized activity (literature, law, architecture, &c), is 
the outstanding feature of this time. But Justinian's wars, 
court, buildings, &c, prove terribly expensive : his mal- 
administration exhausts the state. 

2. A temporary check to the rising Papal power is 
administered by the restored imperial authority in Italy. 

3. Progress of Western Monasticism. 

4. Progress of the Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain. 


The Eastern Empire, for some time relieved from Hunnish 
and other northern dangers, maintaining its frontier against 
Persia, consolidated and strengthened by rest, economy, 
reform, and consequent prosperity, the result of one hundred 
and twenty years of good government from the death of 
Arcadius (408), now passes under the control of a ruler of 
vast ambitions. Justinian himself is perhaps of Slavonic 
origin, like (?) his uncle and predecessor, Justin, and like (?) 
Belisarius, the ' Af ricanus of New Rome ' . (It is now we first 
come clearly upon the Slavonic stock in Mediaeval history. 
One of the earliest mentions of the name is in Procopius.) 

The new emperor aims at restoring to the Empire some- 
thing of its Roman and universal character by a reconquest 
of the West. Aided by ministers and generals of extraordinary 
ability (the Graeco-Levantine John of Cappadocia ; the 
Roman Tribonian ; the Slav (?) Belisarius ; the Persian (?) 
Narses), as well as by the obvious decline of the Vandal 
power since the death of Genseric (477), and by the weaken- 
ing of the Gothic kingdoms (through the death of Theodoric, 
526, the renewed separation of East and West Goths, and 
the feeble and turbulent minority of Theodoric's grand- 
son and successor), Justinian achieves a great measure of 
success — 

(i) Externally, (ii) internally, 
(i) External. 

1. First, the reconquest of Africa. The imperial armies 
under Belisarius attack and overthrow the Vandal dominion 
in NW. Africa and the Mediterranean Islands, 533-5. 
Thus the Empire again extends to the Ocean (Tangier), again 
takes in all the best part of Roman Africa, and again con- 
trols important lands of Latin speech (the earliest important 
Latin theology — Cyprian, Tertullian — is to be found in the 
African lands conquered by the Vandals). 

2. Next, the reconquest of Italy is undertaken. 

(a) First conquest, by Belisarius, 537-40 : defeat and 

PERIOD V : 527-65 29 

captivity of Vitiges, King of the Goths. Gothic 
revival under Totila, 541-4. 
(6) Second, imperfect, conquest of Italy by Belisarius, 

544-8 ; his final recall, 548. 
(c) Third and final imperial attack upon Italy under 
Narses ; his complete success ; the East Gothic 
State destroyed, 552-3 ; invasion of Franks and 
Alamanni repulsed, 554 ; all Italy restored to the 
Six years before this, in 548, Provence has been ceded 
to the Franks. 

The reconquered Italy is governed from Ravenna, like 
the Ostrogothic kingdom, but now by a Byzantine viceroy, 
the Exarch. The line of the Ravenna Exarchs, beginning 
with Narses (553-67), lasts two hundred years (till c. 752), 
when the Byzantines have finally lost all their possessions 
in North and Central Italy. (From this latter time, the 
middle of the eighth century, the Papal State, in a measure, 
begins to take the place of the Byzantine dominion.) 

3. Thirdly, the reconquest of part of Southern Spain is 
effected, at the cost of the West Goths, while the struggle 
with the East Goths is in its most critical stage, c. 550. 

The Roman dominion is thus again extended round the 
greater part of the Mediterranean, including both Old and 
New Rome and the whole of the original Latin country — 
Italy ; and though the Empire is no longer the only power 
in the Mediterranean World, it is obviously the predomi- 
nant one. 

Also the recovery of so much Latin territory does some- 
thing to check the Graecizing or Orientalizing of the Empire, 
and to restore to it something of its old universal character. 
But, by the middle of the eighth century, little of this 
is left. 

4. In the East, a long and fierce but indecisive struggle 


is waged with Persia, now ruled by the greatest of the 
Sasanidae, Chosroes ' the Just ' (Khusru Anushirvan, 
531-79). Struggle for the control of Lazica or Colchis 
(the modern Batum and Poti region, at the extreme 
east of Black Sea). Close attachment of the Crimean 
Goths (threatened by the Turks soon after 553) to the 

Immense and well-executed system of frontier defences 
carried out by Justinian, especially against Persia, but 
also on a great scale in the Balkan peninsula, in Africa, 
and in the Crimea. 

His attempts to form alliances against Persia — 

(i) With the Abyssinian Christians (embassy of Non- 

nosus to Abyssinia, 533, &c). 
(ii) Perhaps even with Indian powers, and 
(hi) With the Turks. 

Intercourse between the Empire and India during this 
period. ' Romans ' in Ceylon. 

Intercourse with races of Central Asia — e.g. the Avars, 
migrating into Europe and flying before the Turks, who 
now also touch the horizon of the We item world for the first 

Indirect intercourse with China. 
(ii) Internal. 

Internal and economic state of the Empire. Agriculture, 
trade, and industry. Vicious imperial finance ; extrava- 
gance balanced by parsimony ; crushing taxation to meet 
enormous expenses, often caused by wastefulness and 
negligence. Exhaustion of the Empire at the close of 
Justinian's reign. Famine and pestilence, especially in 
541, &c. Importation of the first mulberry silk- worms from 
China into the Roman Orient by ' Persian ' (? Nestorian) 
monks, long resident in the Far East, c. 552 [earliest 
evidence of Christianity in China 505]. Rapid progress 
of the new silk manufacture in the Mediterranean World. 

PERIOD V : 527-65 31 

(Hitherto the West had only known the silk-worms of pine, 
oak, and ash trees, generally neglected, except in Cos, where 
men spun the ' Coan silks ' of antiquity.) 

Architecture. Justinian's buildings — this is the great age 
of East-Roman or Byzantine Architecture. The patriarchal 
church of Hagia Sophia [The Sacred or Divine Wisdom] at 
Constantinople, originally founded by Constantine, now 
rebuilt by Justinian, 552-8, the most magnificent of 
Christian temples before the Crusading Age. (' Solomon, 
I have surpassed thee.') 

Many other churches (twenty-five in Constantinople 
alone), palaces, and buildings of this time. Immense 
system of fortresses. 

The factions of the Circus. The ' Nika ' sedition of 532. 

The Empress Theodora : her influence. 

The historian Procopius, his works on the Vandal, Gothic, 
and Persian Wars and on the Buildings of Justinian ; his 
scurrilous Anecdotes, a satire on Justinian and Theodora. 
Anthemios of Tralles, Isidore the Milesian, and other 
architects of St. Sophia, &c. 

The lawyer Tribonian. 

Justinian's suppression of the Schools of Athens (the 
chief ' University ' of Classical Antiquity and the last refuge 
of Philosophical Paganism) ; also of the Roman Consulate, 
529-41 . [The Benedictine Monks begin at this very time, 
see below.] 

Law. Justinian's Legislation — the reformation and 
codification of the entire body of Roman Law, begun 
in 527, and mainly effected by Tribonian, with nine 
colleagues — one of the chief landmarks in the history of 

['Caesar I was, and am Justinian, 
Who by the force of primal love I feel, 
Took from the laws the useless and redundant.' 

Dante, Paradiso, vi.] 


530-65 Development of the Frankish Empire. 

Conquest of Thuringia by the Franks, with the aid of 
the Saxons, 530-2. 
561 Fresh division of the Frankish kingdom into four 
parts : 

1. Australia, with Rheims for capital. 

2. Neustria, capital Soissons. 

3. Burgundy, capital Orleans. 

4. The later lie de France, capital Paris. 

The last is in 567 divided up among the three former, 
and this triple division lasts till the seventh century. 

563 Colom (Colomba, Columba), crossing from Ireland, lands 
in Iona and founds there a mission-station, which becomes 
the head-centre of the Irish Missions in Britain, and (in 
later times) the earliest metropolitan see of the Scottish 
Church. The next century (to about 664) is the age of the 
highest activity of the Irish Church, and of its most brilliant 
successes in the mission-field. [' For a time it seemed as if 
Keltic and not Latin Christianity was to mould the Churches 
of the West.'] 

Striking intellectual, especially artistic, developments accom- 
pany the Irish mission-activity, and continue in full activity 
till the eleventh century. Not till the twelfth does Ireland 
come into the Roman obedience. 

540-65 Progress of the Anglo-Saxon Conquests in Britain. 

Resumption of the West Saxon advance in the South 
from about 540 (?) [Chronicle tradition ; see 520]. 

Conquest of Wiltshire and Berkshire. 

East Saxons spread over much of Essex and Middlesex, 
taking London. 

English conquests in the extreme North (Lothians of 
Scotland) from the Firth of Forth and the East Coast. 

Ida, ' the flame-bearer ', the first great Northumbrian 
chief, 547. 

PERIOD V: 527-65 33 

Conquest of parts of East Anglia, Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, 
the Midlands, &c., by various English tribes. 
[Anglo-Saxons still all heathen — till 597.] 
In the general Church History of this time, we notice the 

(a) Progress of the conversion of the northern invaders 520-70 

from Arianism to Catholic Christianity [soon, by 
c. 600, only Lombards remain Arian]. 

(b) Temporary subjection of the Roman see to effective 

Imperial Control, once more, after the recovery of 
Rome by Belisarius. [Deposition and exile of Pope 
Sylverius, 537.] 

(c) Spread of Christian Missions, mainly Nestorian, in 

Further or non-Roman Asia; evidence of Nes- 
torianism now flourishing in Malabar, and even in 
Ceylon [limited perhaps to the Persian commercial 
colonies], e.g. in 

Cosmas (' Indicopleustes ' ), the Indian and African 535-47 
traveller. His system of ' Christian cosmography ', 
an attack on the doctrine of a round or spherical 
world and an attempt to substitute a ' scriptural ' 
conception (a supreme example of anti-scientific 
spirit in early Christianity). 

(d) Progress of the New Monasticism in the West. 495- 

Benedict of ' Nursia ', i.e. Norcia in Spoleto (480- 528, &c. 
543), founder of the Benedictines, the greatest and 
most extensive of all monastic orders, from which 
immediately sprang the Cluniac, Carthusian, Cis- 
tercian, and other revivals — these orders being 
nominally reformed Benedictines. Benedict's her- 
mit-life near Subiaco c. 495, &c. Beginnings of 
the parent monasteries of Subiaco and Monte 
Cassino, midway between Rome and Naples, 510, 
528. The Benedictine rule drawn up about 529 (cf . 
the suppression of the Schools of Athens this year). 

1765 D 


RISE OF ISLAM, 565-632 

General Points 

1. Relapse of the Empire under Justinian's successors. 

2. Invasion of Italy and permanent conquest of great 
part of the country by the Lombards. 

3. Desperate struggles between the Empire and Persia, 

ending in the defeat of the latter, and the exhaustion of 
both combatants. 

4. More definite appearance of the Turks in relation to 
Europe — as allies of the Empire against Persia. 

5. Renewed strength of the Papacy. 

6. Completion of the Anglo-Saxon conquest of Britain. 
Conversion of the English. 

7. The rise of Islam (the faith preached by the Prophet 
Muhammad) in Arabia. 

The full significance of this is seen in the next period, 
when Islam breaks out of Arabia on its mission of world- 
conquest, and wins such advantage from the weakened 
state of the Empire and of Persia. 

PERIOD VI : 565-632 35 

Though not wholly lost till the eleventh century, when 567-70 
the Normans extinguish the last remains of the Byzantine 
Empire in South Italy, Justinian's gains in the West are 
practically destroyed within one hundred and fifty years 
(by a.d. 700) ; in Italy the 'East Roman' dominion is 
undermined within a single decade of Justinian's death 
[565-75]. In civilization there is a terrible set-back 
between Justinian and Leo the Isaurian (565-717). 

The Teutonic Lombards (' Langobards ' or ' Longbeards ', 568-72 
who in alliance with the non-Aryan Avars have just 
destroyed the Teutonic Gepid kingdom in modern Hun- 
gary, 566-7) break into Italy and conquer the greater 
part of the interior, especially the great northern plain, 
called ' Lombardy ' henceforth after them, and the regions 
of Spoleto and Bene vent o. 

The Empire, however, retains much of the coast, especially 
the four districts near (1) Ravenna, (2) Venice, (3) Naples, 
(4) Rome, (5) the extreme south, (6) the Italian islands. 

The very incompleteness of the Lombard conquest is impor- 
tant for the history of Italy. Imperial and Lombard 
possessions are left so intertwined that no sort of National 
Unity is possible. Thus by a Lombard conquest there is 
no real restoration of the Teutonic kingdom of Italy ; on 
the other hand, the infusion of new blood completed by the 
Lombards does much to make a New Italy (in the Com- 
mercial Republics, &c). 

The Lombard migration is one of the last incidents of the 
first and principal chapter of the Wandering of the Nations. 

A second chapter follows later with Scandinavian and 
Hungarian migrations. 

The Frankish Empire remains divided into Austrasia, 567-613 
Neustria, and Burgundy, forecasting the later and more 
permanent division of France, Germany, and a middle 
kingdom [see 843]. Austrasia is mainly Teutonic : Neustria 



and Burgundy are mainly Romance : towards the North 
Sea, the river Scheldt divides Teuton and ' Roman ' 
568, &c. A Turkish alliance, the chief asset of Byzantine policy 
under Justin II, is formed from about 568 ; it is especially 
directed against Persia. 

Embassies exchanged between Constantinople and Central 
Asia ; the great Khagan or Khan (' Dizabul '), visited by 
the Byzantine envoys, seems to have had his court in 
the Altai. 

572-4 After the murder of Alboin, the first Lombard king in 
Italy (said to have forced his wife Rosamund to drink 
from her father's skull, and to have perished by her revenge) , 
the Lombards soon break up into a confederacy under 
chieftains or ' dukes ', without a supreme head. This 
is probably an important check to the progress of the 

575 Fresh embassies exchanged between Constantinople and 
the Turks. 
576-9 (Mainly) victorious war of the Empire, allied with the 
Turks, against Persia. 

Byzantine troops on the Caspian. 

577 Battle of Deorham. Victory of the West Saxons over 
the Britons, who are divided by the Saxon conquest of this 
region (Bath, Gloucester, and Lower Severn valley) into two 
main sections. The English conquerors now reach the 
western sea at the Bristol Channel. 

f 585 Beginnings of the alliance between the Franks and the 
Church of Rome against the Lombards, and earliest Frank 
invasion of Italy in this cause. 
585 Visigothic conquest of Spain completed : absorption of 
the Swabians in the NW. 

586-9 Complete conversion of the Visigoths from Arianism to 

PERIOD VI : 565-632 37 

Catholic Christianity. Of the Northern races within the old 
borders of Empire, only the Lombards now remain Arian. 

Northumbria, founded by the union of Deira (Yorkshire) 588 
and Bernicia (Durham, Northumberland, and East Lothian 
to the Forth), soon becomes the leading English state. 

Greatness of Kent. Supremacy of its king, iEthelberht, 590 
over all SE. England. Value of this in furthering the 
conversion of the English (from 597). 

The Emperor Maurice (Mauritios) restores the Persian 590-1 
king, Chosroes the Younger (Khusru Parviz), to his throne. 
Persian cessions to the Empire. 

Pontificate of Gregory I (' the Great '). 590-604 

Death of St. Columba, founder of the Irish religious 597 
house at Iona and leader of the Irish missions in Britain. 
His name gains an influence in the Irish Church second 
only to that of Patrick [see 563] . 

A Roman mission, under Augustine, dispatched by Pope 597 
Gregory to England, lands in Kent. It relies first on 
the help of the Frankish princess, Bertha, iEthelberht's 

Early successes of the Roman mission in Kent, Essex, 597-627 
and Northumbria (627). 

Murder of the Emperor Maurice by the usurper Phokas. 602 
The Persians attack the Empire, 603 ; as time goes on 
they gain the alliance of the Avars, settled in (our) Hungary 
[see above, 568]. 

Death of Pope Gregory the Great [see 590]. 604 

Importance of his pontificate, (a) The imperial power 
becomes more shadowy in Rome. The Church tends to 
take its place. (6) Thus the Roman Church approximates 
to a temporal power ; its head to a temporal sovereign, 
(c) A vast missionary movement among the (still heathen) 
Teutonic peoples, beginning with England, is organized 


from Rome : this somewhat compensates Christendom for 
her losses to Islam, and does much to form modern Europe. 
(d) Though studiously moderate in his assertion of Papal 
claims (' Away with words that puff up vanity and wound 
charity '), Gregory stands out as the real working head of 
the whole Christian Church of his day. (e) He is important 
in the history of Christian theology, liturgy, ritual, music 
(' Gregorian tones ', &c). Reputation of his Dialogues, his 
Magna Moralia or commentary on Job, and his De Cura 
Pastorali (or De Regula Pastorali) throughout the Middle 
Ages. Translation of the latter into Anglo-Saxon by 
iElfred the Great. In theology, Gregory ranked with 
Augustine, Ambrose, and Jerome, as one of the four Latin 
* Doctors of the Church '. (/) In his time Arianism every- 
where gives way before Catholicism, even among the 
Lombards. Gregory's extant Letters — more than 800 
in number — show his work as an administrator, and 
illustrate his ubiquitous and incessant activity ; ' his 
capacity for business ; his wide, varied, and minute 
supervision ; his dexterity and tenacity in the conduct 
of affairs'. He has his word in almost all the important 
ecclesiastical matters of W. Europe, and in many of the 
secular. ' From the highest concerns of Church and 
State he passes to direct the management of a farm, the 
reclaiming of a runaway nun, or the relief of a distressed 
petitioner in a distant province.' To all his other gifts 
he added the saving grace of humour. 
608-19 Momentary Persian conquests from the Empire — Damas- 
cus, Jerusalem, Antioch, and most of Syria, Palestine, Asia 
Minor, and Egypt. Great destruction of historic monu- 
ments, and especially of the Christian buildings of Con- 
stantine and Helena in Jerusalem (614). Constantinople 
threatened from the Asiatic side (Persian camp at Chalce- 
don), while the Avars threaten it in Europe. Peril of the 

PERIOD VI : 565-632 39 

Muhammad begins to preach his faith (' Islam ') at Mecca 609 

[see 622]. 

The Northumbrian English, under ^Ethelfrith, rout the 613 
Britons at Chester, conquer this region, and thus split the 
British lands into three (as Deorham had broken them into 
two), penetrating to the western sea at the mouth of the 
Dee, &c. 

Supremacy of Northumbria, under Eadwine, over nearly 617-32 
all the English (except Kent) and some of the Britons — 
a first real approach to a ' kingdom of England \ 

Death of Columban, the chief of the Irish missionaries 615 
on the continent of Europe in this century. Columban is 
active in France, the Rhine-land, Switzerland, and N. 

Eadwine of Northumbria [perhaps] founds Eadwine' 's c. 617 
Burh, Edinburgh, by the fortification of the Castle Rock. 

The Mayors of the Palace begin to dominate the Frankish c. 620, 
courts. The Karling or Garolingian family concentrates in &c. 
itself the power of this Mayoralty. 

The Emperor Heraclius takes the field against the Persians 622 
in Asia Minor with brilliant success (but till 626 they do 
not retire from Chalcedon). 

Muhammad ['Mohammed', i.e. 'The Praised'; in Turk- 622 
ish ' Mahomet '], rejected and in danger of his life at Mecca 
[Makkah], flies to Medina [Al Madinah], where he is well 
received, and begins to gain an important following. 
From this centre he gradually wins all Arabia. This flight 
is the Hijra or Hegira, from which Muhammadans begin 
their chronology. 

The Arabic Peninsula had never hitherto been effectively 
united for any purpose ; it was inhabited by tribes which 
mostly owned a certain racial affinity and a common 
religious belief — a vague nature-worship, especially of 


the heavenly bodies, centred at the Temple in Mecca — 
the ' Kaaba ' — where was the famous meteorite known as 
the ' Black Stone '. Arabia now undergoes the decisive 
change of its local history, and, as the result of this, effects 
one of the chief revolutions in world-history. Muhammad, 
born about 570 at Mecca, belonged to the Kuraysh, 
a family at the head of the Arabian aristocracy, which 
dominated the sacred city and guarded the Kaaba. He 
himself, however, before his marriage with his cousin 
Khadijah, was poor, and of small account. For some time 
he is said to have been a camel-driver in Khadijah's service. 
In 609 [see this year] he begins to preach as the apostle and 
prophet, not (as he claimed) of a new faith, but of the ancient 
belief of all the prophets (' Hear, O Israel, the Lord thy 
God is one Lord '). This faith, now revived and reformed 
by himself, last and greatest of the prophets, the con- 
summator of the work of Abraham, Moses, and Christ, is 
Al Islam, the Making of Peace (by submission to the will of 
God ; cf. s'lam, ' salaam '). Those who hold it are Muslims 
(' Moslems '), i.e. those who have Made Peace (by such sub- 

Issue, by many successive chapters, of the Kuran 
[Koran] or Sacred Book of Islam. 

Islam has one fundamental principle — ' I testify that 
there is but one God ' — and an essential sub -principle — 
' and that Muhammad is the Apostle and Prophet of God '. 
It enjoins four practical duties : (a) Prayer, five times 
a day ; (6) Fasting, during the thirty days of Ramadan, 
from sunrise to sunset ; (c) Almsgiving, one-tenth of the 
income of every believer ; (d) Pilgrimage, to Mecca [and 
Medina] once in the life of every believer. 

Friday is the Muhammadan day of public worship. The 
Kaaba of Mecca is the Kiblah, or point to which all turn 
in prayer. Wine and pork are forbidden. Slavery and 
polygamy (four wives and unrestricted concubinage) 

PERIOD VI : 565-632 41 

allowed. Emphasis on future life : salvation of all Muslims. 
No proper priesthood, no sacrificial system, and (in a sense) 
no miraculous claims, in Islam. Priesthood of all believers. 

Islam or Muhammadanism, though historically the great 
rival of Christendom and its civilization, itself renders 
service, in various countries and times, to civilization 
(especially in its earlier, Arabic, period, and among Asiatic 
and African races). 

The early Muslim culture, brilliant from the ninth to the 
eleventh century a.d., almost extinct after the fourteenth, 
devotes itself particularly to poetry, mathematics, and 
natural science (astronomy, medicine, &c). From Muslim 
schools (e.g. in Spain and Baghdad), and by Muslim scholars 
in Christian lands, the knowledge of Christendom is much 

Final j oint Persian- Avar attack on Constantinople repulsed . 626 
Continued victories of Heraclius in Armenia, Mesopotamia, 
Media, &c. Persians retire from the Bosphorus. 

Conversion of the Northumbrian court (Eadwine) by the 627 
Roman mission [see 597]. 

Peace between the Empire and Persia. Frontiers restored 628 
as before the war (603). Exhaustion of both combatants. 

Muhammad begins to attack the outer world by a raid 629 
upon the Empire in Palestine. 

Muhammad compels Mecca to surrender, and prepares 630 
to attack the Empire in force. 

All Arabia submits to Muhammad and embraces Islam. 630-2 

Death of Muhammad (June 8) in the middle of his pre- 632 
parations for attacks upon Persia and the Empire. 





General Points 

1. The outbreak of Islam as a world-power creates the 
new empire of the Arabs under the Caliphs [Khalifahs] or 
Successors of Muhammad. This great revolution completes 
the change from ancient civilization to the mediaeval. 
From this time we see Christendom and European civiliza- 
tion for centuries struggling against an Asiatic reaction 
and a new aggressive religion. Early Islam thus tears 
away from Christendom many of its richest lands, con- 
taining some chief centres of Mediterranean life and 
culture ; greatly injures and hampers Christian trade and 
intercourse ; confines the horizon, and depresses the spirit 
of Christendom. 

2. The Byzantine Empire, when almost succumbing to 
the Muhammadan attacks, is saved by the new ' Isaurian ' 
dynasty (Leo III), and thereby saves Christendom in the 

3. The Frankish power, directed by the new Karling 
line of Viceroys or Mayors of the Palace, under Charles 
Martel, repels the Muhammadan advance north of the 
Pyrenees, and thereby saves Christendom in the West. 

4. Victory of Christianity in England. Defeat of the 
Pagan reaction. English rejection of Irish Church allegi- 
ance for Roman. 

PERIOD VII : 632-732 43 

5. The English, Irish, and other missions on the Con- 
tinent begin to win Central (especially the purely Germanic) 
Europe for Christianity : the English missionaries help to 
make this Christianity Roman. 

6. Progress of Mediaeval Thought. A partial Renaissance 
of Learning. 

7. The Karling House of Mayors of the Palace practically 
dethrone the House of Clovis. 

8. A close alliance is developed between the Church of 
Rome and the new Frankish dynasty. 


632 After the death of Muhammad, Abu Bakr is elected as his 
Caliph [Khalifah or ' Successor '] to command the Faithful. 
The Islamic movement of world-conquest is only delayed for 
a short time by the loss of the founder. Revolts against 
Islam in Arabia quickly suppressed. Authorized and com- 
pleted ' publication ' of the Kuran, which had been issued 
by Muhammad, section by section, during the last twenty 
or more years. 

633 Momentary victory of the Pagan reaction in England, 
headed by Penda of Mercia (the Western Midlands). 
Defeat and death of Eadwine of Northumbria in the 
battle of Heathfield, 633. Mercian supremacy over all 
Middle England. 

633-7 Arab conquests in Palestine and Persia. Umar or ' Omar ', 
the second Caliph, 634-44, leading figure among early 
Muhammadan statesmen. Persian defeat at Kadesia, 636 ; 
the Sasanid royal standard taken. Roman defeats in 
Palestine. Capture of Damascus (635) ; of Jerusalem (637) ; 
and of Ktesiphon, the Persian capital (637). Foundation 
of the earliest mosque at Jerusalem (the first Aksa), at the 
south end of the Jewish temple -area : the present Aksa 
and ' Mosque of Omar ' were built about a.d. 690, &c. 

635-42 Partial restoration of Northumbrian and Christian power 
in England under Oswald. 
636 Death of Isidore of Seville, the chief Christian encyclo- 
paedist of the ' Dark Ages '. His Etymologies or Origins, 
as a compendium of universal knowledge, is a standard 
text-book even to the thirteenth century. 
638-9 Conquest of North Syria by the Arabs ; fall of Antioch. 

639-41 Invasion and conquest of Egypt by the Arabs, with 
some [alleged] help from Coptic Christians, forming the 
bulk of the native population, who had been constantly 
treated as heretics by the emperors. Capture of Alexan- 
dria, so long the second city of the Mediterranean World 

PERIOD VII : 632-732 45 

(Rome till Constantine, Constantinople after Constantine, 
being first). 

The Muslim conquest of Egypt cuts off the European 
supply of the ancient paper or papyrus (from about this 
time). Its place is partly taken by the costlier ' vellum ' 
(prepared skins of animals) ; see 1450. 

Tradition of the destruction of the Alexandrian Library 641 
by the Muhammadan Conquerors. Omar's alleged decision : 
' If the books of the Greeks agree with the Book of God 
(the Kuran) they are useless and need not be preserved : 
if they disagree, they are pernicious and should be de- 
stroyed.' This doubtless exaggeration, perhaps altogether 
a fabrication (but cf . the burning by Muslims of Zoroastrian 
books in Persia). The Alexandrian Library, the greatest 
and richest collection of the ancient Mediterranean World, 
had already much declined since the age of the Antonines. 
But it does disappear from history under Muhammadan rule. 

Battle of Nahavand. Final destruction of the old Persian 
kingdom of the Sasanidae (founded a.d. 226), which later 
becomes the central part of the Caliphs" empire, containing 
the capital, Baghdad, after the accession of the House of 
Abbas in 750. 

Surrender of Caesarea. Complete conquest of Syria by 642 
the Saracens. (Thus, nearly one thousand years after the 
first European conquest of the Levant, by Alexander 
the Great, European ascendancy is destroyed in Syria and 
Egypt by the Asiatic reaction.) 

Renewed triumphs of the Pagan reaction in England. 642, &c 
Oswald of Northumbria defeated and killed, in the battle 
of Maserfield, 642. Mercian supremacy extended over 
much of S. England. 

Muhammadan conquest of ' Barbary ' (N. Africa beyond 647 
Egypt) begins. 

Decisive victory of Christianity in England. 655 


Penda defeated and killed by the Northumbrians under 
Oswiu at the battle of the river Winwaed (near Leeds). 
Northumbrian supremacy extended over all Northern and 
Central England (to the Thames). 

Triumph of Irish Christianity in the north. 

659 Successful revolt of Mercia, under Wulfhere. 

Final destruction of Northumbrian leadership in England. 
Movement towards national unity checked. England seems 
falling into a triple division — North, Midlands, South. 

661 The House of Umayyah [the Umayyad or ' Ommiad ' 
dynasty] succeeds to the Caliphate with Muawiyah, who 
changes the supreme Muhammadan power from elective 
to hereditary. 

664 The rivalry between Roman and Irish missions for the 
allegiance of the English decided in favour of Rome by the 
Synod of Whitby. All England thus brought into relation 
with the main body of Western civilization. 
5, &C Renewed progress of Muhammadan conquest in N. Africa 
(Barbary) after a prolonged pause. 

669 Theodore of Tarsus sent from Rome, as Archbishop of 
Canterbury, to organize the Church in England. His work 
(669-90), admirably carried out, helps towards real 
national unity and sentiment. The ' Church of England ' 
leads to the ' Kingdom of England '. 
674-6 First unsuccessful Muhammadan siege of Constantinople. 
Earliest recorded use of Greek Fire (the mediaeval predecessor 
of gunpowder), invented shortly before this (by Kallinikos 
of Heliopolis in Syria ?). Among the ingredients of ' Greek 
fire' were naphtha, sulphur, pitch. 'From this mixture, 
which produced a thick smoke and a loud explosion, 
proceeded a fierce and obstinate flame,' which burnt with 
equal fury upwards and downwards. Water only increased 
its energy. Sand and vinegar were among the few things 
that could extinguish it. Till about 1 100 the Eastern Empire 

PERIOD VII : 632-732 47 

kept the secret : it was then discovered or stolen by the 
Muhammadans, who used it on the Crusaders. The com- 
position of ' Greek ', ' maritime ', ' wild ', ' wet ', or ' liquid ' 
fire has been lost for several centuries. 

Final ruin of Carthage. In its place, foundation of c. 675 
Kairwan (' Cairoan ') in Tunis. The great mosque here, 
one of the first important works of early Muhammadan 
architecture and art, served in some measure as a model 
for Cordova [see p. 72]. Muhammadan conquest, led by 
Akba, triumphant in Barbary, reaches the Atlantic Ocean. 
[' Great God, if my course were not stopped by this sea, 
I would still go on to the unknown kingdoms of the West, 
preaching the unity of Thy holy name, and putting to the 
sword the rebellious nations who worship any other gods.'] 

Csedmon of Whitby, the earliest recorded English poet } c. 680 
writes On the Beginning of Created Things. 

Renewed advances of the West Saxons from this year. 682 
Expansion of Southern England at the expense of the 
Britons of Somerset, Devon, &c. 

English (Northumbrian) aggression upon Picts, N. of 685 
Firth of Forth, decisively checked in the battle of Nectans- 
mere. Beginnings of a great Pictish or Scottish state. 

Battle of Testri. The ' Karling ' House (that of Charles 687 
Martel, Pippin [Pepin], and Charles the Great) definitely 
acquires the Mayoralty of the Palace or headship of the 
royal household — the practical sovereignty — in the whole 
Frankish kingdom. 

Willibrord, the pioneer of the Anglo-Saxon missions on 690 
the Continent, which do so much to win Central Europe 
for the Church, begins his work in Frisia (N. Netherlands). 

' Doges ', Dukes, or Sovereign Mayors, of Venice first c. 690- 
recorded. About the same time the line of Doges begins 700 
at Amalfi. These are the pioneers in the commercial life 
of the Christian Mediterranean, especially of Italy. 


691 or Council of the Church ' in Trullo ' marks the beginnings 

692 f severance between Greek (Eastern) and Latin (Western) 

Churches (e.g. the Roman Church rejects decrees of this 

council permitting the clergy to marry and asserting the 

equality of the Bishops of Rome and Constantinople). 

695- Muhammadan conquest of Cilicia and of Cyprus (part 
715 ? ceded by Treaty of 686). 

C. 700 Complete expulsion of Byzantine rule from North Africa, 
and subjugation of N. African Christianity, which hence- 
forth rapidly decays. 

Native risings against the Muhammadan Conquerors in 
Barbary suppressed by 709. 

c. 710- Chinese paper introduced via Central Asia to the Muham- 
720 madan world. 

711-13 Muhammadan invasion and conquest of Spain under 
Tarik and Musa. Seizure of Gibraltar [Jibal Tarik, Hill 
of Tarik]. Battle of Xeres. 

Overthrow of the Visigothic Monarchy. Capture of the 
chief Spanish towns ; all the Peninsula occupied up to the 
northern mountains (Pyrenees, Asturias). Extraordinary 
rapidity, ease, and duration of Muslim conquest here. 

Till the thirteenth century the best parts of Spain remain 
Muhammadan : till about 1000 nearly all Spain. Christian 
reconquest is not absolutely complete till 1492. Remark- 
able developments of Muhammadan culture in this country. 

714 Charles Martel, ' the Hammer ', becomes Mayor of the 
Palace, i.e. practical Viceroy, in the Frankish State (retains 
this till his death in 741). 

708-16 The Muhammadans overrun great part of Asia Minor, 
reach the Bosphorus, and threaten Constantinople. - 

716 Winifrith of Crediton, otherwise ' St. Boniface ', the 
English Apostle of Germany, begins his work on the Con- 
tinent (Utrecht, Thuringia). 

PERIOD VII : 632-732 49 

Second and decisive Arab siege of Constantinople (lasting 717-18 
twelve months). The city is saved by the general Leo 
the Isaurian, who, as the Emperor Leo III, becomes the 
founder of the ' Isaurian ' and ' Iconoclast ' dynasty (717- 
800). The Caliphate really puts out its strength (army 
of 180,000 men, fleet of 2,600 war vessels and transports) 
in this great effort, and its defeat is a crucial event for 
Europe and Christendom in the East. 

(Take this event in connexion with the battle of Tours, 
732. Had either of the main Islamic attacks succeeded 
it is not difficult to imagine the complete conquest of 
Europe and Christendom. Had both triumphed, ' a 
victorious march might have carried the Saracens to 
Poland and Scotland. . . . Perhaps the Koran would now 
be taught in Oxford.' — Gibbon.) 

Muhammadan invasion of S. France. Momentary con- 718, &c. 
quest north to Bordeaux, east almost to Marseilles. Finally, 
after the Duke of Aquitaine has been defeated, all Aquitaine 
is overrun : flying Saracen bands spread to Tours, Lyons, 
even Besancon. 

But between Poitiers and Tours the main Saracen army 732 
is met by Charles Martel and the Franks, and in a seven 
days' running struggle utterly defeated — the so-called 
Battle of Tours, which saves Christendom in the West, as 
the defence of Constantinople had saved it on the East. 

During these years the Byzantines under Leo the 718-32 
Isaurian are gradually recovering Asia Minor, a possession 
vital to the Empire, and are regaining control of the sea. 

About this time early Irish art reaches its highest 
development, e.g. in the manuscripts and their illustra- 
tions. The Book of Kelts (seventh to eighth century) and 
the Booh of Burrow, which professes to have been written 
by St. Columba himself (before 597), are perhaps the most 
celebrated examples of this early Irish art. 

1766 E 



General Points 

1. The Byzantine Revival is maintained — down to the 
death of Constantine V. After this, the Eastern Empire 
weakens again somewhat. 

2. The Isaurian emperors become involved in a bitter 
struggle with most of Catholic Christendom, and especially 
the Church of Rome, on the Iconoclast question. 

3. The usurpation of Irene completes the movement of 
revolt in the West. The Church and people of Old Rome 
repudiate allegiance to a female usurper [see 6], 

4. The Karling House, dominating the Frankish king- 
dom, displaces the Merwing, or Merovingian dynasty (the 
House of Clovis), and seizes the Frankish throne. 

5. The new Frankish dynasty binds still more closely 
the alliance with the Church of Rome, and destroys the 
Lombard power in Italy. 

6. The Pope, Church, and people of Rome claim to 
declare the Empire vacant, and to appoint the Frankish 
king in place of the deposed Byzantine empress. Corona- 
tion of Charles. Commencement of a new Western Empire. 

7. Progress of the Roman Mission movement on the 

8. Revolution in the Caliphate. Dethronement of the 
Umayyads. Accession of the Abbasids. Revolt of Spain. 
Disruption of the Muhammadan Empire. Foundation of 

9. Development of the Mediaeval Philosophy of the 

PERIOD VIII : 732-800 51 

Progress of the Byzantine Imperial Revival under Leo the 732, &c. 
I saurian [see 717]. Military, financial, commercial, and 
legal reforms. Reconquest of Asia Minor. 

Death of Baeda (the Venerable Bede), the first important 735 
man of letters and science among the English. His work 
for civilization [history, theology, science, scholarship] 
continued in various Northumbrian Schools, especially at 
York and Jarrow (in Durham). First among ' English 
scholars, historians . . . theologians, it is in the monk of 
Jarrow that English learning strikes its roots ' [see 740]. 
Bede does much to revive the credit of the 'Pagan' doctrine 
of the roundness of the world, * like the yelk in an egg '. 

[' See farther onward flame the burning breath 
Of Isidore, of Beda. . . .' 

Dante, Paradiso, x.] 

Charles Martel, on the death of the Frankish king, rules 737 
alone, without nominal sovereign, yet without taking the 
royal title himself. 

Great Byzantine victory over the Saracens. 739 

Reconquest of Cyprus about this time (?). 

Prosperity of the School of York under Archbishop c. 740- 
Ecgberht. Alcuin was a pupil (afterwards the head) of this 756 
School [see 801, 804]. 

Deaths of Charles Martel and Leo the Isaurian. 741 

Pippin [Pepin] ' the Short ' becomes Mayor of the Palace 
at the Frankish court. 

The Anglo-Saxon Boniface, ' Apostle of Germany ' [see 741 
p. 53], missionary bishop among heathen Germans from 
730, is commissioned by Pope Zacharias to reform the 
Frankish Church, and does so with energy and some 

Boniface made Archbishop of Mainz and ' Primate of 746 
Germany ' ; under him are the bishops and dioceses of 
Worms, Speyer, Tongres, Cologne, Utrecht. 


750 Revolution in, and disruption of the Caliphate [cf. the 
dynastic revolution in the Frankish kingdom, 751]. The 
Umayyad (' Ommiad ') dynasty overthrown by the Abbasid 
[descendants of Abbas, uncle of Muhammad]. Spain won 
to the Umayyad cause by Abdurrahman I (755-63), the 
practical founder of the Western Caliphate [in name only 
an Amirat, till 929, when Abdurrahman III assumes the 
style of Caliph]. The loss of Spain is followed, after a time, 
by the loss of Africa. 

751 Dethronement of the Merovingian or Merwing line of 
Franhish rulers (House of Clovis) to make way for the 
House of Charles Martel, Pippin, and Charles the Great 
(the Karling or Carolingian dynasty). ' Karling ' kings 
do not wholly cease to reign in West Frankish (French) 
lands till 987 : in East Frankish (German) lands they end 
911. Karling emperors reign 800-88. Share of the Papacy 
in this revolution : Pope Zacharias, consulted as to ' whether 
the real or nominal rulers ' should have the sovereign title, 
answers ' the former '. This Papal action, though often 
described with exaggeration, is important, and foreshadows 
the developments of Papal temporal power in the next 
centuries. Boniface of Mainz said to have crowned Pippin. 

c. 752 The Byzantine Viceroys in Italy (' Exarchs ' of Ravenna) 
come to an end through Lombard conquest. 

755 The Franks, under their new dynasty, are appealed to 
by the Papacy for help against the Lombards (who have 
just completed their conquest of the Byzantine Exarchate, 
and dominate Italy). They invade the peninsula, defeat 
the Lombards, and take from the latter various territories, 
which they hand over to the Roman Church. This Donation 
of Pippin is usually considered as the foundation (it is at 
any rate an essential development) of the temporal power of 
the Papacy, But the gifts of this donation appear to have 
been held by the Church of Rome under the Frankish Crown. 

PERIOD VIII : 732-800 53 

Muhammadan rule completely destroyed in France : the c. 755 
last Saracen invaders driven beyond the Pyrenees. 

Partial revival of Christian Spain. New kingdom of 
Asturias (later Leon and Castile) formed under Alfonso I, 
750-5. A considerable part of Northern Spain (down to 
the Douro) temporarily recovered from Islam. 

Martyrdom of Boniface near Dokkum in Frisia. Impor- 755 
tance of the career of the ' German Apostle ' ; his foundation 
of mission-sees as far east as Passau and Salzburg. 

Death of John of Damascus, one of the chief forerunners 760 
of Scholasticism. 

[The work of the Schoolmen, among other things, 
attempted : 

1. To systematize Christian Theology as a science, 

2. To comprise and treat all knowledge under the head 

of Theology. 

3. To adapt Ancient Philosophy (e. g. Aristotle) to the 

uses of Christian Theology. 

Scholasticism, which reached its height in the thirteenth 
century, occupied many of the ablest thinkers of the 
Middle Ages, and in some of its work, e.g. the Summa 
Theologiae of Thomas Aquinas, has left a lasting memorial 
in the history of human ideas.] 

The capital of the Abbasid Caliphate moved from 762, &c. 
Damascus to Baghdad, which remains the capital of Eastern 
Islam till the Mongol conquest of 1258. 

Death of Pippin. Accession of Charles (' the Great ', 768 
' Charlemagne ') to the Frankish throne. He has already 
been joint ruler with his father and brother from 754. 

Charles becomes sole ruler of the Franks after the death 771 
of his brother Carloman. 

Charles begins the conquest of the heathen Saxons on 772 
the north-east, between lower Elbe and lower middle 


C. 772 Pope Hadrian I begins the use of the forged Donation of 
Constantine by the Roman popes — calling on Charles the 
Great ' to imitate the liberality, and revive the name 
of . . . the first of Christian Emperors \ 

773-4 Charles, again summoned by the Papacy to aid against 
the Lombards (' that perfidious and most unsavoury 
nation '), finally destroys the Lombard power in Italy, and 
makes a fresh Donation to the Church of Rome, especially of 
the Ravenna region. 

[' And when the tooth of Lombardy had bitten 
The holy Church . . . 
Did Charlemagne victorious succour her.' 

Dante, Paradiso, vi.] 

775 With the death of the able and ruthless soldier-icono- 
clast, Constantine V ('Kopronymos '), the Isaurian revival 
of the Eastern Empire, which had driven the Saracens out 
of Asia Minor and Cyprus, and the Bulgarians out of Thrace, 
begins to lose strength. The Iconoclast movement also 
declines with the death of this hated champion of early 
Puritanism (his enemies ' exhausted the bitterness of 
religious gall in their portrait of this spotted panther, this 
antichrist, this flying dragon of the serpent's seed ...'). 

778 Charles begins to attack Spanish Islam on the south- 
west (the ■ Saxon war ' is still raging on the north-east) 
[see 772]. 

779 First recorded Scandinavian (' Viking ') attack on 
Western Europe : descent on the Bordeaux region. 

780-5 First Frankish conquest of the Saxons completed by 
Charles. Forcible ' conversions \ 
782 Alcuin, from the School of York, joins the court of 
Charles the Great. In the ' Carolingian Revival ' of Letters, 
Alcuin, Paul the Deacon (the historian of the Lombards), 
and Einhard, the biographer of Charles himself, are note- 
worthy figures. 

PERIOD VIII : 732-800 55 

Foundation of the Great Mosque at Cordova by Abdur- 785 
rahman I [see 990]. 

Harun ar Rashid [' the Just '], the most famous Abbasid 786 
Caliph, begins to reign at Baghdad. His friendship with 
Charles, to whom he sends presents of silk stuffs, perfumes, 
drugs, musical instruments, and rare animals, especially 
an elephant. Charles's gifts are of Frisian cloth, furs, and 
amber. Harun's reign (786-809) appears in Muslim tradi- 
tion and romance (e.g. the Arabian Nights) as a golden 
age of Muhammadan power, splendour, and culture. 

First Scandinavian descents on English coasts. 787-93 

The Second Council of Nicaea ends the Iconoclastic 787 
controversy in favour of the ikons, and the ' ikon- wor- 
shippers '. But no real reconciliation follows with the 
Church of Rome. 

Charles's wars with Scandinavians (Danes, Viking raiders, 789 
&c), and with the Slavs beyond the Elbe. 

Charles's successful wars with the (Turco-Tartar) Avars 791-6 
in modern Hungary, especially between Danube and 

A fresh Frankish attack upon Muslim Spain. 795 

First recorded discovery of Iceland, by Irish monks, who 795 
notice the perpetual daylight of midsummer (' no darkness 
to hide a man from doing what he liked '). 

First recorded landing of Scandinavian invaders in 795 

Buildings of Charles the Great at his court-town of c. 796, 
Aachen (' Aix-la-Chapelle '). From his palace chapel (on &c * 
the pattern of St. Vitale at Ravenna), where he was buried, 
the cathedral was developed. 

The Byzantine Empress-Mother Eirene deposes and 797 
blinds her son, Constantine VI, thus ending the Isaurian 
dynasty. The Church of Rome repudiates allegiance to 


a female Caesar of such infamy, and prepares, in effect, to 
revive the separate Western Empire, extinct since 476, in 
the person of the Frankish king and people. [As to the 
theory of Old Rome on this point, see below, 800.] 

799 Scandinavian raid in Aquitaine — the first serious Viking 
attack on the Frank Empire [see 779]. 

800 Charles crowned emperor in St. Peter's at Rome by 
Leo III on Christmas Day. [' The church rang to the 
shout, Karolo Augusto a Deo coronato magno . . . imperatori 
vita et victoria. In that . . . was pronounced the union, 
so long in preparation, so mighty in . . . consequences, of 
the Roman and the Teuton, of the memories and civiliza- 
tion of the south with the fresh energy of the north ', 
and here a new age of history begins. — Bryce.] This revolt 
of the Church and people of Rome from the historic Empire 
is represented by them and their supporters as a mere 
Translatio Imperii (from the Eastern Rome back to the 
Western, from the ' Greeks ' to the Franks, legally effected 
by the vote of the Church and people of Old Rome). 



General Points 

1. Decline and ruin of the new Western Empire after the 
death of Charles. 

2. Beginnings of ' Modern Europe ' with the partition of 
Verdun, by which the Western Empire is divided into three 
parts. With these begin the history of (a) ' Modern France ', 
(6) ' Modern Germany ', (c) Burgundy and the ' Middle 
States ', now represented by Holland, Belgium, Switzer- 

3. At the same time we have the earliest official monu- 
ments of French and German speech (Oaths of Strass- 
burg, &c). 

4. The civilizing movement fostered by Charles the 
Great in great measure collapses. One of the darkest of 
the Dark Ages is the ninth century from the death of 

5. First real approach to a ' kingdom of England ', under 
West Saxon leadership. 

6. The Scandinavian raids increase in extent and 
violence, and Scandinavian colonization begins on a large 

7. Steady progress of Christian missions. 

8. Beginnings of higher Muhammadan culture in the 

(eastern) Caliphate, especially at the court of Baghdad. 



801 Fresh Frankish attack on Muhammadan Spain. 
Conquest of Barcelona. 

801 Alcuin retires from the court of Charles the Great, 
becomes Abbot of St. Martin-at-Tours, and there organizes 
a School somewhat on the model of York. 

802 Ecgberht (founder of the West Saxon headship of all 
England) becomes King of the West Saxons. 

804 Final conquest of the Saxons of N. Germany by the 
Frankish Empire, which now includes all the Germans of 
the homeland. 

804 Death of Alcuin, the principal scholar and writer of the 
age of Charles the Great, and one of the leading church- 
men and diplomatists of the Frankish State and Western 
Empire [see 801, 740]. 

811 Nikephoros I, Eastern Emperor, defeated and killed by 
the Bulgarians, who from this time till the accession of 
Nikephoros Phokas (in 963), and the beginning of the 
great ' Byzantine military revival ', are a serious danger. 
Their power is not seriously weakened till 969-71. 

c.810-20 Muhammadan conquest of Corsica and Sardinia, from 
the Eastern Empire, about this time, or a few years 

823 Muhammadan conquest of Crete from the Eastern 
Empire (by a raid from Spain). Crete remains a Saracen 
pirate-lair, with terrible results to Christian, and especially 
Byzantine, trade, till its re-conquest by the Eastern 
Empire in 960 [which see]. 

825-6 Ecgberht's victories over Mercians (Middle English) : 
the men of Kent, Sussex, Essex, East Anglia, accept West 
Saxon overlordship. 

826 Anskar (Ansgar), * Apostle of the North ', begins a 
Catholic mission among the Danes. 

PERIOD IX : 800-43 59 

Muhammadan conquest of Sicily begins : most of the 827 
island, with Syracuse, won by 878 ; but in the north-east 
corner the Byzantine resistance is not over till 965. 

Mercians and Northumbrians submit to West Saxon 827 
overlordship. Ecgberht first real Over-King of all the 
Anglo-Saxons (a real unified ' kingdom of England ' still 

Civil war breaks out in the Western Empire, ruinous to 829 
the State, through the disputes between the children of 
Lewis ' the Pious ' (grandsons of Charles the Great) over 
their inheritance. 

A Catholic mission begins in Sweden under Anskar [see 829 
above, 826]. 

Anskar, archbishop of new (missionary) metropolitan 831 
see of Hamburg (and Bremen). 

Scandinavian attack upon SW. England, in alliance 836 
with Britons of Cornwall, &c, repulsed by Ecgberht. 

Death of Ecgberht. Scandinavian attacks upon England 839 
soon increase in violence. 

Death of Claudius (bishop) of Turin, ' iconoclast and 839 
demi-Protestant \ His writings often curiously anticipate 
points raised by Wycliffe, Hus, and the sixteenth-century 

The Scandinavians, who have been harrying and settling c. 840, 
in Ireland since at least 795, now begin a conquest of the & c « 
whole country. This marks a departure in policy. Ireland 
is the first foreign country where they attempt a complete 

Increasing violence of Scandinavian attacks on the C. 840- 
Western Empire, especially within ' French ' lands. Rouen 
taken, 841 ; Nantes, 842 ; Northmen winter at mouth of 
Loire [their first wintering on Frankish soil ?] 843. 


During all this time (800-43) the Scandinavians, begin- 
ning with ravages, have gradually mastered and settled in 
the Hebrides, Orkneys, Shetlands, and Faroes. 

840 Death of Lewis the Pious : 

1 Rex Ludovicus pietatis tantus amicus, 
Qui Pius a populo dicitur et titulo.' 

[' He left the empire he had done so much to dismember 
to be fought for by his sons and grandson.' — Oman.] 

841 Battle of Fontenay. Defeat of Lothar, representing the 
unity of the Empire under one imperial overlord, by Ludwig 
(Lewis) the German and Charles the Bald, who represent 
the separation of the German and French nations in the 
Western or Frankish Empire, and who may be considered 
the first kings of ' Germany ' and ' France '. 

842 The Oaths of Strassburg (to bind closer the alliance of 
Ludwig and Charles). This is the first important official 
monument of French and German speech. 

843 Partition of the Western Empire by the Treaty of Verdun. 
Hereby is created a French, a German, and a Middle 

1. The French kingdom, under Charles the Bald, answers 
in all respects to the mediaeval kingdom of France, as 
it existed without much change till about 1310-14 — 
bounded by the Ocean, the Channel, the Mediterranean, 
the Pyrenees, and Spanish March, the Cevennes, Rhone, 
Saone, Meuse, and Scheldt (almost nothing east of these 
rivers). Brittany may perhaps be considered as inde- 
pendent. The Spanish March is soon lost. 

2. The German kingdom, under Ludwig the German, 
roughly lies between the Rhine and the Elbe, but includes 
certain lands (in the neighbourhood of Mainz, Worms, and 
Speyer) on the west side of the Rhine, and does not include 
Friesland or any of the east Rhine-bank below Koblenz. 
The eastern border advances slightly beyond the Elbe in 

PERIOD IX : 800-43 61 

Holstein, but falls westward of the Elbe to the south of 
(later) Magdeburg. In the Danube valley it again advances 
east to just below (modern) Vienna, and thence drops down 
to the Adriatic immediately east of Istria. This border is 
not greatly changed on the east till after 920. 

3. The Middle kingdom, under Lothar, includes all 
Prankish Italy ; most of Burgundy ; Provence, part of 
Languedoc ; Friesland ; most of the land between the 
Rhone and the Alps on one side, and between the Rhine 
and the Scheldt, Meuse, and Saone, on the other. The 
two capitals of Charles the Great, Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) 
and Rome, are included in the Middle kingdom. Lothar's 
anxiety to get good wine-producing land, in the partition, 
is one alleged cause of the strange shape of this Middle 

From (1) mediaeval and modern France has resulted ; 
from (2) Germany ; from (3) the Burgundies, and the 
states of N. Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Holland. 

Union of Picts and ' Scots ' (originally colonists from 843 
Ireland) under Kenneth II. 

Development of a ' Scottish ' realm [see 685]. 



General Points 

1. Final disruption of the new Western Empire in its 
Frankish form. 

2. Zenith of Scandinavian activity — raiding, conquering, 

Settlements in England, Ireland, Iceland, Nether- 
lands, &c. 

2 a. Beginnings of the Russian nation through Swedish 
migration, and the resulting Scandinavian conquest and 
leadership of Slavs. 

2 6. English revival under Alfred the Great. Partition 
of England between the West Saxon State and the Scandi- 
navian conquerors. 

3. Decisive breach between the eastern and western 

(' Greek ' and ' Latin ') parts of the Church, mainly arising 

4. Growth of Papal power and Papal claims, especially 
under Nicolas I. 

5. Progress of Christian missions. 

6. Growth of Feudalism. 

PERIOD X : 843-88 63 

Scandinavian attacks upon Muhammadan Spain (espe- 844 
cially Lisbon and Seville) and upon Marocco. 

All the three states of the Verdun Partition — 'France', 845 
* Germany ', and ' Lotharingia ' — are attacked by the 
Scandinavians (' From the fury of the Northmen, good 
Lord, deliver us '). 

Pope Leo IV, dreading a capture of Rome by Saracen 849 
raiders (whose activity increases terribly in Italy after the 
Frankish civil troubles begin in 829), fortifies ' the Leonine 
city ', thus enclosing St. Peter's and the chief shrines of 
Christian Rome, on the Vatican hill. At the end of the 
fourteenth century, after the return from 'Babylonish 
captivity ' at Avignon, the Vatican becomes the Papal 
residence [see p. 186]. 

Line of able and aggressive popes, 847-82, culminating 
in Nicolas I, 858-67. 

Miserable state of Western Christendom, at this time C. 850 
attacked by Scandinavians on north, by Slavs and others 
(Hungarians a few years later) on east, by Muhammadans 
on south — the Western Empire hopelessly divided — feudal 
disintegration everywhere. 

Composition of the False Decretals [see 860]. c. 850- 

Death of the Emperor Lothair. His son, Lewis II, reigns «?? ' * ' 
as nominal emperor to 875. 

Scandinavians first winter in England (in Sheppey). 855 

Pressure of their attacks upon all Western Europe. 

Nicolas I, Pope, one of those pontiffs ' who stand 858-67 
forth in history as having most signally contributed to the 
advancement of their see '. Assertions of the spiritual 
power over the civil by Nicolas I, especially in the case of 
Lothair II, King of Lotharingia, whom he compels to take 
back his divorced wife (865). Nicolas is pictured by 
a contemporary as surpassing all his predecessors since 


Gregory the Great ; as commanding kings and tyrants, 
and ruling them as if lord of the world ; as gentle to the 
worthy, terrible to the refractory, as another ' Elias in 
spirit and in power \ 

Progress of a more aggressive Papalism [see 867]. 

858-61 Scandinavian attack upon Muhammadan Spain and 
raids in the Mediterranean. 

c. 860 The False Decretals [see 850-5] are brought to Rome 
and adopted by the Papacy. ' Fifty-nine Decretals, which 
purported to be those of the Popes of the second and third 
centuries, and thirty-nine more . . . interpolated among 
the real documents extending from Siricius to Gregory II 
(384-731). There was also in this precious collection the 
. . . Donation of Constantine. ... To any one with . . . 
knowledge of early Church history, or textual criticism, 
the False Decretals would have betrayed their character 
at once. ... It is impossible not to suppose that Nicolas I 
knew what he was doing in accepting ' them, but they 
1 were too tempting to be neglected ', and so were ' at 
once incorporated in the authentic . . . Acts of Councils, 
edited by Isidore of Seville ' [see p. 44]. ' Who forged the 
pseudo-Isidorian Decretals we ' may ' never know. They 
were first heard of at Mainz ', and probably composed ' at 
Mainz or Rheims '. 'A mouse-trap for Metropolitans ' 
they are called by Hincmar of Rheims, the greatest ' Metro- 
politan ' of his time [see 882], ' because they threw all ' 
ultimate ' power into the hands of the Roman Pontiff ' 

c. 860 Scandinavians (Northmen) reach Iceland. 

860-930 Harald ' Fairhair ' (' Haarfager '), king in Norway, 
crushes the petty kings, and unites all the states in one 
kingdom. Many leave home to escape his rule, and join 
the roving colonists (Vikings) already spread over so much 
of the seas and coasts of Europe. An immense increase 

PERIOD X : 843-88 65 

of Scandinavian expansion- activity thus results from the 
unity and consolidation of Norway. 

Scandinavian migration from the Upsala region of e. 862 
Sweden to Old Novgorod in NW. Russia. 
Beginnings of the Russian nation. 

Cyril and Methodius, apostles of the Slavs, begin their 863 
mission work in Central Europe (Moravia, upper valleys 
of Drave and Save, &c). 

Conversion of the Bulgarians in the Balkan Peninsula. 861-6 
Struggles between Rome and Constantinople for their 

allegiance. The Patriarch Photius (of Constantinople) ; 

his services to learning, literature, history, &c. His 

Myriobiblion. His work in the conversion of Bulgaria. 

His controversies with Rome — denunciations of enforced 

celibacy of clergy, &c. 

Rupture (practically final) between the Churches of Rome 863-7 
and Constantinople — between Greek and Latin Christianity. 

[' Nicolas styled Photius an intruder and usurper . . . and 
declared him deposed. . . . That one patriarch should 
. . . remove . . . another without ... a General Council, and 
merely ... as the successor of Peter, appeared monstrous 
to the Byzantine clergy. . . . After seven years of wrangling 
the division between East and West was finally formulated 
by the Synod of Constantinople (866), where the Emperor, 866 
the patriarch, and 1,000 bishops and abbots drew up the 
Eight Articles. . . . The Third . . . denounced the enforced 
celibacy of the priesthood as a snare of Satan . . . the 
Seventh . . . condemned the Roman doctrine of the pro- 
cession of the Holy Ghost, " a heresy deserving a thousand 
anathemas ".' Photius was afterwards deposed (Septem- 
ber 867) ; restored 877 ; afresh excommunicated by Rome, 
whom he defied, 879 ; finally deposed after death of Basil I 
(886), ' but his fall did not heal the breach, for the Byzantine 
emperors and clergy . . . adhered to the statements of . . , 

X765 F 


the Synod of Constantinople. To this day they are held 
by the Eastern Church.' — Oman.] 

The Papal claims were, of course, the fundamental 
reason of the schism. Nicolas I developed these afresh, 
beyond the standard of Leo I or Gregory I, and strained 
matters till a rupture resulted. 

867 Basil I seizes the throne of Constantinople and founds 
the longest and most glorious of Byzantine dynasties (the 
' Basilian ' or ' Macedonian ', largely of Armenian blood). 

Death of Pope Nicolas I. Importance of his pontificate. 
[' The increase of the Papal power under him was immense. 
He had gained such control over princes as was before 
unknown. He had taken the unexampled steps of depos- 
ing foreign metropolitans, and of annulling the decisions of 
a Frankish National Council by ... a Roman synod. He 
had neglected all the old canonical formalities ... in the 
way of his exercising immediate jurisdiction throughout 
the Western Church. And in all this he had been sup- 
ported by the public . . . indignation against Lothair and 
his subservient clergy.' — Robertson.] 

867-78 Great Scandinavian attack on England. 

Conquest of all England N. of Thames. Wessex almost 
crushed, but saved by a national uprising under its new 
king Alfred (871-901) in 878. 

874 Permanent Scandinavian settlement in Iceland begins. 
Remarkable civilization (literature, especially) developed 

Icelandic Sagas — in their present form of eleventh- 
fourteenth centuries {Burnt Njal, Eyrbyggia, Red Eric, &c). 

Iceland becomes a base for further Scandinavian dis- 
covery and settlement — Greenland, Vinland, &c. 

875 Death of the (nominal) Emperor Lewis II. Charles the 
Bald, ' first King of France ' [see 843], receives the imperial 

PERIOD X : 843-88 67 

Alleged Scandinavian discovery of Greenland (?) [see c. 877 

Death of Charles the Bald [see 843, 875]. 877 

Death of John Scotus Erigena, the first mediaeval philo- c. 877 
sopher of real originality, and one of the leading thinkers of 
the Middle Ages. Probably a native of Ireland. He often 
works in scholastic method, but his outlook and purpose 
are really philosophical, quite independent of theological 
views. He shows a remarkable knowledge of Greek. For 
many years he lives at the court of Charles the Bald [from 
c. 843 ?], and is head of the palace-school. 

Peace of Wedmore. England divided between the Scan- 878 
dinavians in N. and NE. and Wessex in S. and W. 
Scandinavian England, ' the Danelaw ', includes all the 
North and the Eastern Midlands. Alfred keeps (1) all 
south of Thames, (2) the Western Midlands (all west of 
Watling Street). 

Charles the Fat (son of Lewis the German and great- 881 
grandson of Charles the Great) receives the imperial crown. 

Kiev becomes the capital of the Slav-Scandinavian 882 
Russians, and the seat of their Grand Princes till 1169 [see 
862, 1169, 1240]. 

Novgorod, though deserted by the ruling clan of the Bus, 
maintains a distinctive and rival position, and becomes the 
chief Russian trading town. 

Death of Hincmar (b. 806 ; Archbishop of Rheims, 882 
845-82), ' a man of strong, lofty, and resolute character, 
of a mind at once subtle and eminently practical, of learn- 
ing which . . . raised him above almost all his contem- 
poraries, and of great political talent. ... He steadily 
upheld the Church against Crown and nobles. . . . But 
especially he was the champion of the national Church 
and ... his sovereign against . . . the Papacy.' In his 
character are suggestions both of Bossuet and Talleyrand, 



* II y a de l'ev^que de Meaux et un peu de l'eveque 
s. 852- Growth of Feudalism in France. In all ' the ' ' Great Fiefs ' ' 
86 the first commencement of hereditary rule dates from the 
fatal days between . . . Fontenay and the deposition of 
Charles the Fat. ... In Toulouse it dates from 852, in 
Flanders the date is 862, in Poitou 867, in Anjou 870, in 
Gascony 872, in Burgundy 877, in Auvergne 886' [Oman]. 
1 Feudalism may be understood as a social and political 
organization based upon land-ownership, and upon the 
personal relations created by that land-ownership. Its 
theory required (i) that he who held land of another was 
his immediate subordinate and owed him the service of 
a vassal to a lord ; (ii) that every free man under the King 
should have a lord ; (iii) that any man, not holding land 
at all, was in a state of dependence or serfage ; (iv) that 
all land was ultimately held of the King, who was the 
apex of the social and political pyramid '. 

884-7 Momentary reunion of Frankish States — France, Ger- 
many, Lotharingia, Italy, &c. (all except Southern 
Burgundy) — under the Emperor Charles the Fat. 

[This temporary and expiring reaction against the 
Nationalist tendencies shown at Verdun, 843, &c, is of 
no importance.] 

884-6 Renewal of struggle between Wessex and the ' Danes '. 

Defeat of the Northmen. Advances of Wessex. 

New Wessex-' Danelaw ' boundaries : up Thames and Lea 
to sources of latter near Hertford ; thence to Bedford on 
the Ouse ; thence to line of Watling Street, crossing Ouse near 
Stony Stratford. 

885 Great siege of Paris by the Northmen. Defence of the 
city by Odo (Eudes), Count of Paris, son of Robert the 
Strong and ancestor of the House of Capet [see 987]. Here 
the importance of Paris in history begins. 

PERIOD X : 843-88 69 

Charles's dishonourable treaty with the Northmen, and 887-8 
obvious incapacity, lead to his deposition. 

Final disruption of the Frankish States, and re-com- 
mencement of the separate life of France, Germany, Italy 
(France and Germany never again united). In Germany 
Arnulf of Carinthia (887-99) elected king by the East 

In France one party among the West Franks elect Odo 
as king (888-98) ; the legitimist or Karling party elect 
Charles the Simple (893-923). 

About this time the Magyars or Hungarians, a race of c. 887-8, 
Finnish (non- Aryan) stock, which had entered Europe by &C 
way of the Lower Volga and the Steppes (north of the 
Euxine), cross the Carpathians and overrun Hungary. 
Thence they attack Germany and Italy. (' From the arrows 
of the Hungarians, good Lord, deliver us.') 





General Points 

1. End of the Carolingian Empire. The separate states 
resume their separate activities and development — Germany, 
France, Italy, Burgundy. 

2. Depressed state of nearly all Christendom, especially 
in the West. This is one of the darkest of the Dark Ages 

3. A partial exception to the general depression is found 
in the Eastern Empire and in England. 

4. Scandinavian activity all over the Western world. 
Permanent settlement in Normandy begun. Progress in 
Russia. Attacks upon Constantinople. Explorations in 
the Far North. 

5. Revived energies of Spanish Islam, which now 
approaches the zenith of its civilization. 

PERIOD XI : 888-919 71 

Muhammadan pirates from Spain seize Fraxinetum on 888 
the coast of Provence, and from this lair ravage much of 
S. France, W. Italy, even Switzerland, for a century — 888 
to 975. [' On one occasion Provencal Saracens and Magyars 
from the Danube met at Orbe ' near Lausanne, a few 
miles north of the Lake of Geneva. ' It seemed as if the 
enemies of Europe had met at her central point, and that 
Christendom was doomed to succumb.'] 

Defeat of Scandinavians at Louvain. 891 

Thus ends the last serious ' Danish ' incursion into the 
Middle kingdom or into Western Germany. 

Fresh attacks of the Northmen (their chief leader the 894-7 
pirate Hasting) upon Wessex. Final victory of iElfred. 

Death of Alfred. His reorganization of his kingdom, 901 
revival of the Militia, and creation of a Navy. His work 
for civilization (learning, literature, &c). The ' Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle ' ; Travels of Ohthere and Wulfstan ; 
Translations from Orosius' Universal History, Boethius' 
Consolation of Philosophy, &c. ; Asser's Life of JSlfred. 

Eadward ' the Elder ', son of Alfred, renews the struggle 910 
with the Northmen, and begins the reconquest of the 

Fresh discovery of Greenland by the Northmen. c.910(?) 

Extinction of the Frankish or Karling line in Germany 911 

(with the death of Lewis or Ludwig the Child, son of 

Arnulf of Carinthia). 

Foundation of Cluny, in Burgundy, which becomes the 912 
chief monastery of Roman Christendom. Thence beginning 
of a powerful movement for Monastic and Church Reform, 
associated with the highest ecclesiasticism ('School of 
Hildebrand '). 

Permanent Scandinavian settlement and conquest in 911-22 
the North of France recognized by the cession of Normandy 


(Northmen's Land) by the treaty of Clair-sur-Epte. The 
invaders' leader, Hrolf ' the Ganger ' (Rollo the Rover), 
an exile from Norway and Viking leader, baptized as 
* Robert ', becomes the first Duke of Normandy (ancestor 
of William the Conqueror). This treaty is probably in 
part an imitation of the Wedmore arrangement [see 878]. 

912 Accession of Abdurrahman III in Spain (Amirat, 
Sultanate, or Caliphate of Cordova). Revival of Muham- 
madan power in Spain under the ' Great Caliph ' (912- 
61 ; • Caliph ', formally, only from 929). Internal pros- 
perity ; magnificent buildings ; science and learning. 
The schools of Cordova, during all the tenth century, 
a centre of the highest Western culture. Their Christian 
pupils and influence on Christendom. Splendid Muslim 
buildings in Spain : the Great Mosque at Cordova, founded 
785, extended [see 929, 961, 990]. 

c. 912- Incessant Hungarian attacks upon German lands, 
920 Italy, &c. 

Weakness and misery of all the Christian countries of 
the West (England a partial exception). 



General Points 

1. Foundation of the great German state of the Middle 

Ages, which lasts as the most powerful in Europe till 
fatally weakened in the thirteenth century. 

Victories over enemies (Hungarians, Danes, &c). Con- 
quests from Slavs beyond Elbe. Internal consolidation. 

Interference in Italy. 

As result of this : 

1 a. Revival of the Western Empire, under the German 
kings, as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. 

2. English revival in Britain. Scandinavian conquests 
[Danelaw, &c] recovered by West Saxons under House 
of Alfred. Zenith of Anglo-Saxon state. 

3. Spanish Islam (Western Caliphate) at the height of 
its power and prosperity, both in politics and civilization. 

4. Beginnings of fresh territorial advance of the Eastern 
Empire, largely as result of 

5. Weakness and decay of Eastern [Baghdad] Caliphate. 

6. Scandinavian activity. Complete formation of the 
Norman settlement in N. France. 


919 Henry the Fowler, Duke of the Saxons, the true founder 
of the mediaeval German kingdom, elected German (' East 
Frankish ') king (Henry I). Troubled state of the German 
lands at this time. All beyond the Elbe occupied by the 
Slavs. Germany proper (the ' East Frankish ' land) is 
still really composed of separate states (' duchies ') of 
Saxons, Franconians, Bavarians, Swabians, &c. Terrible 
sufferings from invasions of Scandinavians, Slavs, Hun- 
garians, &c. Great part of Lotharingia occupied by 
France (the ' West Frankish ' kingdom). 

922 Complete re-conquest of the Midlands by Wessex (Ead- 
ward the Elder and his sister iEthelflaed). 

924 First West-Saxon re-conquest of Northern England. 

925 Henry the Fowler conquers Lotharingia from France. 

926 iEthelstan (925-40) crushes movements of Scots, Welsh, 
and Scandinavians against the West Saxon Empire. 

927 Henry the Fowler begins the German eastward advance 
(Drang nach Osten) at the expense of the Slavs. Conquests 
beyond the Elbe. Occupation of part of (the later) Branden- 
burg, from 927-8. The Mark of Brandenburg begun [see 

First German Colonization beyond Middle Elbe — towards 
region of [later] Berlin. 
929 Abdurrahman III assumes the title of Caliph in Spain. 
[' The Western Caliphate ' proper, 929-1031.] 

931, Beginnings of the Polish nation, with Gnesen (Gniezno) 

&c. as capital. 

933 Great German victory over the Hungarians. German 
successes against Bohemians and Danes. Creation of a 
Danish Mark [see 936], in certain regions of Holstein and 
Schleswig, by Henry (934). 

936 Death of Henry the Fowler. ' In him, as in Alfred, is 
summed up the national hero — conqueror, colonist, deliverer.' 

PERIOD XII : 919-62 75 

His successes in promoting internal unity — (a real German 
state now begins) — in repulsing foreign enemies, and in 
extending the kingdom and the limits of the German race. 
Progress of town life. (' Henry the City-Builder.') His 
system of ' Marks ', ' Marches ', Frontier Provinces, or 
' Border- Jurisdictions ', out of which Prussia, Austria, and 
modern Saxony have largely grown: e.g. (1) Schleswig, 
against the Danes ; (2) and (3) Meissen and Brandenburg, 
against the Slavs ; (4) Austria, against Hungarians. Each 
was a ' nucleus of defence and civilization round which new 
conquests grouped themselves ' [Stubbs]. Foundation of 
new fortresses and restoration of old (nuclei of towns). 
Henry's son Otto * the Great ' (936-73) succeeds. 

League against Wessex defeated in the battle of Brunan- 937 
burh (commemorated in Song of Brunanburh). 

Zenith of the West Saxon power in Britain under JEtheh 937-55 
stan, Eadmund, and Eadred. Complete submission of the 
Danelaw. Northumbria made an earldom. Dunstan's 
political career begins c. 946. 

Successful struggles of Otto the Great against internal 937-55 
disaffection and against foreign enemies, Hungarians, 
Danes, Slavs, &c. Progress of the German expansion. 
Final defeat of the Hungarians (battle of the Lechfeld, 
955) ; end of their attacks on Germany and Italy. They 
settle down in the Hungarian plain, develop settled order 
and civilization ; later they join Roman Christendom [see 

Accession of Eadgar, the last of the great West Saxon 959 
kings (959-75), under whom many symptoms of decay 
are noticeable. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury (959- 
85), is the chief English statesman of this period. 

Byzantine re-conquest of Crete (by Nikephoros Phokas). 960-1 
Crete, lost 823, had long been a terrible plague to the 
Empire as a base of Muhammadan piracy and war. 


Beginnings of the new Byzantine territorial recovery 
(TEpopee Byzantine '). 

961 Otto's second expedition to Italy (first in 951) nominally 
to aid Pope John XII against his enemies. In Rome 
Otto renews the Imperial office. 

962 Beginnings of the Holy Roman Empire of the German 
Nation — which lasts, as a vital factor in European history, 
till the Great Interregnum (1256-73) ; retains some value 
till the abdication of Charles V (1555), or even perhaps till 
the Peace of Westphalia (1648) ; and continues in name 
till 1806. Importance of this. Contrast with the Empire 
of Charles the Great (which is Germany plus France, plus 
Burgundy, plus Italy ; — whereas the Holy Empire as 
finally constituted is Germany plus Italy — and later plus 
Burgundy, but never including France. The ' Ottonian 
restoration ' also is less ecclesiastical, and less ' Roman ' 
than the Carolingian ; but it was ' based on a social force 
which the other had wanted ' [Bryce]. ^ 




General Points 

1. The revived Western Empire under the German kings. 

Its work in Italy. Crushing of movements towards Italian 

Imperial control of Papacy and of city of Rome asserted 
and maintained. First German reform of the Papacy. 

2. Advance of the Eastern Empire at the expense of the 
Muhammadan world and of the Barbarians in the Balkans. 

Extensive conquests in Asia and Europe (T Epopee By- 
zantine '). 

3. Extinction of the Carolingian line in France. Hugh 
Capet founds the new Capet dynasty, which continues (in 
various lines) till the end of monarchy in France (1848). 

4 Continued power and splendour of Spanish Islam and 
its civilization. Deep influence of this on Western Chris- 

5. Scandinavian activity. Renewal of attacks on Eng- 

Fresh Norse discoveries. 

Attacks on the Eastern Empire. Colonization of Green- 
land begun. 

6. Progress of Christian missions in the North and East 
of Europe, especially among Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, 
Russians, and Poles. 


962-92 Mieczyslaw I, first King of Poland. 

963-4 Otto causes the deposition of Pope John XII, and 
asserts the Imperial (German) control over the Papacy, which 
he reforms. The Roman clergy and people have to pro- 
mise not to elect popes without the Imperial consent. 

This first German ' reformation of the Papacy ' is succeeded, 
after a time, by a fresh period of Papal degradation and 
dependence on local nobles. 

963-9 Progress of the Byzantine revival. Nikephoros Phokas, 
co-emperor and regent. Fresh conquests (Cilicia, 964-5 ; 
Cyprus, 965 ; Antioch, 969 ; and other parts of North 
Syria, e.g. Aleppo, Emesa). No city of Syria remained 
so long in Christian hands as Antioch, retained by the 
Eastern Empire till 1081 ; recovered by the (First) Cru- 
saders in 1098 ; finally lost to Islam, 1268. 

965-7 The Polish King (Mieczyslaw) and his court embrace 
Roman Christianity, which becomes the national religion. 

968 Embassy from the Western Empire to the Eastern, 
under Liudprand (' Luitprand '), Bishop of Cremona, one 
of the most interesting writers of the tenth century. 
Badly received at Constantinople, Liudprand roundly 
abuses everything, especially Nikephoros himself, ' in 
colour an Ethiopian ; bold of tongue, a fox by nature, 
in perjury and lying an Ulysses. . . .' 

The Eastern Emperor, encouraged by success, haughtily 
refuses to barter away Byzantine (S.) Italy to Otto, and 
threatens war. 

969 John Tzimiskes, Byzantine general, murders Nikephoros 
Phokas, and becomes co-emperor and regent in his place 
(969-76). ' Thus perished ... a brave soldier, an able 
general . . . one of the most virtuous men and conscientious 
sovereigns that ever occupied the throne of Constantinople ' 

PERIOD XIII : 962-87 79 

Re-conquest of Eastern Bulgaria. Victorious war with 969-76 
the Russians (Svyatoslav defeated and forced to surrender 
at Dorystolon on the Danube, 971). Revolts, recoveries, 
and fresh conquests in Syria — advance into Mesopotamia. 
Diarbakr or Amida, Edessa, Nisibis, Beirut captured, 
973-5. Momentary recovery of Jerusalem (?). 

Interview between Tzimiskes and Svyatoslav on the 969-76 
Danube, one of the most picturesque passages of mediaeval 
history, as described by Leo the Deacon. The emperor's 
' diminutive body endowed with the soul of an hero ' 

Death of Otto I. His ability, practical sense, untiring 973 
energy, conscientiousness, ubiquity. ' Constantly travers- 
ing his dominions, he introduced peace and prosperity . . . 
and left everywhere the impress of an heroic character. 
Under him the Germans became united . . . raised on a 
pinnacle ... as the imperial race ' [Bryce]. 

Death of John Tzimiskes. Basil II, the ward and co- 976 
emperor of Nikephoros Phokas and John Tzimiskes (963- 
76 ; cf. the last Frankish kings of the House of Clovis 
and the Mayors of the Palace), now becomes real sovereign, 
976-1025. His reign marks the zenith of the political and 
military strength of the Eastern Empire (since Justinian), 
' the culminating point of Byzantine greatness '. 

[' Indefatigable, brave, and stern, Basil's courage degener- 
ated into ferocity. . . . He believed ... he was prudent, 
just, and devout ; others considered him rapacious, cruel, 
and bigoted. For . . . learning he cared little ... he was 
a type of the higher Byzantine moral character . . . more 
. . . Roman than . . . Greek. In . . . military skill he had 
few equals.' — Finlay.] 

St. Mark's, Venice (the present church), commenced. 977 

Al Mansur (' Almanzor '), the most successful military 978 
leader of Spanish Islam, becomes practical dictator of the 


Caliphate of Cordova (978-1002). In 985 he takes Barce- 
lona ; in 987 Leon. 

Spanish Christendom again driven back into the mountain 
fastnesses (Asturias, Pyrenees). 

980 Scandinavian attacks, mainly Danish, upon England 
recommence. They increase in force till the great Danish 
conquest of England is achieved (by 1014-16). 

981 The Emperor Basil II (976-1025), ' Slayer of Bulgarians ' 
(' Boulgaroktonos '), begins the final Byzantine conquest 
of all Bulgaria (finished 1018). 

983 The palace-church of Charles the Great at Aachen, 
ruined by the Northmen, is rebuilt. (Till 1531 this 
remains the regular place of the coronation of the German 

983 Death of Otto II. Otto III, a child of three years old, 
succeeds. Partly as a result of this, a Pagan and anti- 
German reaction breaks out in the newly-won Slav lands 
beyond the Elbe. For over a century the German expan- 
sion is put back. 

985 Eric the Red, exiled from Iceland, begins the Scandi- 
navian colonization of Greenland. 

987 Death of Louis le Faineant (' Do-Nothing '), King of the 
West Franks or ' French '. Extinction of the direct line 
of Charles the Great. Hugh Capet, Duke of the French, 
Lord of Paris, chosen king (987-96). Writing at the 
opening of the fourteenth century, Dante views him as 

'the source of that malignant plant, 
That overshadoweth now the Christian world 
So that good fruit is seldom gathered from it \ 

The direct Capetian line lasts till 1328 (death of Charles 
the Fourth) ; in younger branches (Valois, Bourbon) till 
1793 (and, after the Restoration of 1815, till 1848). Paris, 
the centre of the power of the House of Eudes (Counts 

PERIOD XIII : 962-87 81 

or Dukes of the French), tends to become the permanent 
capital of the French monarchy. 

Laon, the royal city of the Western Carolingians (the 
Karling kings of France), gradually sinks into a small 
provincial town. 

Immense power of the great vassals in France, com- 
pletely overshadowing the Crown under all the early V 
Capetians, as under the later Carolingians. 

Not till Louis VI (1108-37) does the royal power 
begin to make much headway. Philip II, ' Augustus ' 
(1180-1223), is the true creator of the great French 






General Points 

1. The Western Empire and German Kingdom, though 
harassed by difficulties in Italy, by a Pagan and anti- 
German reaction among the Slavs beyond the Elbe, and 
by the growth of the Polish power, maintains its premier 
position in W. Europe. Short-lived attempt (of Otto III) 
to revive the Roman Empire in a stricter sense, with Rome 
as the seat of government and imperial residence. 

2. Continued progress and prosperity of the Eastern 
Empire [see previous section]. 

3. Continued prosperity of the Western Caliphate [Spanish 
Islam ; see previous section]. 

4. Progress of Christian missions in north and east of 
Europe. Conversion of the sovereigns, courts, and govern- 
ing classes among all the Scandinavian peoples (Northmen, 
Danes, and Swedes) ; also among the Russians, the Poles, 
and the Hungarians. 

5. Zenith of Scandinavian activities. Attacks on England. 
Colonization of Greenland. Discovery of North America. 
Intercourse with Constantinople. 

6. Formation of a powerful Polish state [see (1) and (4) 

7. Power and prosperity of the Slav-Scandinavian 
Russians [see (4) above]. 

8. The Hungarian state takes permanent form. 

PERIOD XIV : 987-1002 83 

Progress of the Scandinavian colonization of Greenland, 987, &c. 
especially in extreme south. 

Vladimir, the Russian Grand Prince (972-1015), accepts c. 988 
Greek Christianity, which from this time gradually becomes 
the national faith of the Russian race. (Some progress had 
been made by Greek Church missions to the Russians as 
early as 867.) 

Russia is the chief gain of the Eastern Church in 

1 Almanzor ' completes the Great Mosque at Cordova, 990, &c. 
commenced in 785, and added to by successive Amirs and 
Caliphs of the Umayyad dynasty in Spain, — ' the largest 
and most noble monument of the architecture of the 
Spanish Arabs ', and in many respects of Islam. 

Scandinavian attacks on England increase in violence. 991 
Battle (and song) of Maldon. 

Olaf, the ■ Lap king ', makes Roman Christianity the 993- 
national faith in Sweden. 1024 

Otto III (born 980 ; German king from 983) crowned 996 
emperor. His dream of restoring Rome as the real capital 
of the Western Empire. 

Olaf Tryggveson, King of Norway, introduces Roman 996- 
Christianity as the national faith. 100 ° 

Boleslaw I, King of Poland, founder of Polish greatness. 996- 
His vast conquests (Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Pomerania, 1025 
Old Prussia, part of Russia and of later Brandenburg, &c). 
Though much of this is only temporary, part is permanent, 
and henceforth Poland takes rank as an independent and 
important Christian power. 

Olaf Tryggveson builds a royal residence and church C. 996 
(the first cathedral of Norway) at Nidaros or Trondhjem, 
which for a time becomes one of the leading court-towns 
and capitals of Europe [see 1015, 1090]. 



990-7 Continued victories of Spanish Islam under ' Almanzor ' ; 
Galicia overrun ; Compostella taken. Spanish Christen- 
dom now apparently confined within narrower limits than 
at any time since the first Muhammadan conquest of 
Spain [711, &c.]. Deceptive character of much of this. 

997- Stephen, first King of Hungary ['St. Stephen'], makes 
1002, Roman Christianity the national faith, settles and organizes 
&c# his people as a nation of Catholic Europe [997-1038], and 
takes the royal title [1001]. 

999 The great scholar and scientific pioneer, Gerbert, the 
confidant, tutor, and adviser of Otto III, once a pupil of 
the Muhammadan Spanish Schools, and long head of the 
Schools of Rheims, becomes Pope, as Sylvester II (999- 

997- The Turkish Sultan, Mahmud of Ghazni, begins the 
1028 Muhammadan conquest of North India. 

Before Carpets begin to be introduced again into W. Europe, 
1000 especially from Muhammadan Spain. 

1000 Discovery of some part of North America by the Scandi- 
navians. Leif, son of Red Eric, returning to his home in 
S. Greenland (Eric's Fiord) from the court of Norway, is 
carried by stress of weather to Vineland the Good (Southern 
Nova Scotia, or some region not very far south of this). 

1000 Death of King Olaf Tryggveson at the battle of Svold. 
Norway partitioned by Sweden, Denmark, and Norse rebels. 
1000-2 Christian rally in Spain. ' Almanzor ' checked. 

1002 Death of Al Mansur ('Almanzor'), and of Otto III, 
followed by that of Pope Sylvester II (1003). 

Massacre of Danes in England, on St. Brice's Day 
(November 13). The Danish King, Swegen Fork-Beard, 
resolves on the conquest of England. Scandinavian attacks 
increase in force till the complete Danish conquest of 


A.D. 1000 

1. Civilization has received terrible shocks since 476 : 
has been in danger of at least partial paralysis : has not 
up to the end of the tenth century shown much promise 
of fresh life. The Revivals of Culture attempted (e. g. under 
Charles the Great) have not proved permanent. 

But the revival of comparatively healthy social and 
political life is already beginning to be felt. After terrible 
struggles, European life has been in great measure re- 
generated by Germanic, Scandinavian, and other con- 
querors and settlers. 

The Old, all-embracing, Empire has gone : but in its 
place we have the New Nations, already beginning 
to show highly developed political consciousness and 

The Old, all-prevailing, Western Language has gone, 
except for the special use of Churchmen. In its place are 
the New Languages, which in time will produce the New 

The Old Latin Literature has gone. In its place is the 
New Latin Literature of the Church, which since the fifth 
century (still more since the rise of Islam) has little literary 

The Old Paganism, in all its varieties, has gone. In its 
place is the Christian Church, dominating, or deeply 
affecting, every important race of Europe, and nearly 
every phase of European life. 

The Old Philosophy has gone. In its place is the beginning 
of the New Christian Philosophy (Scholasticism). The 
'Theological interest' remains the most powerful of all 
intellectual forces. 

The Old Social and Economic Conditions (Roman Slavery, 
Morality, Luxury, &c.) are profoundly changed or modified. 


The Christian tendency towards the Emancipation of all 
the Unfree is already to be noticed. 

The Old Culture, Wealth, and Refinements have gone. 
The New Christian society is comparatively poor, rough, 
hard-living, ignorant, unrefined. But with greater purity, 
virility, capacity, originality, and promise. 

Knowledge of the world, in Christian Europe, has been 
greatly contracted in east, south-east, and south, since 
the days of the Old Empire, but on the other hand has 
been notably extended to north, north-east, and north- 

Islamic civilization has reached perhaps its highest 
development, and has both injured and benefited Christen- 
dom deeply. 

2. The EAST ROMAN or Byzantine EMPIRE, now 
entirely non-Latin, governed from Constantinople, still 
represents the Caesars, and is the lineal descendant of the 
realm of Constantine. It is now at the height of a long 
period of revived energy and power, though it has lost 
(since 800) even the formal allegiance of nearly all of Western 

3. Among the New Institutions and NEW STATES of 
Europe, the Roman PAPACY has established its ascendancy 
over nearly all parts of Western Christendom, and has 
definitely advanced a claim to a spiritual monarchy over 
the whole Christian world. This has helped to produce 
a permanent schism of Eastern and Western Christians: 
the ' Greeks ' have (since the ninth century) clearly rejected 
the more extreme Papal claims. The Papacy is still nor- 
mally submissive in secular matters to the civil power, 
especially as embodied in the new imperial authority it 
has done so much to create. 

The New Western or HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE is also 
near the zenith of its real political development and success. 


Originally founded as an almost Universal Dominion of 
the West under the Frankish kings, largely through the 
action of the Church of Rome, in revolt from the Eastern 
Empire, it soon fell to pieces, in this larger and more unwieldy 
form, but was revived in a smaller, more compact, and 
manageable shape. It is now the 'Holy Roman Empire 
of the German Nation', and is based entirely upon the 
leading position of the Germanic people and kingdom in 
Roman Christendom. 

No other of the New Western States, France, England, 
the Spanish kingdoms, the Italian Republics, &c, have 
reached the same apparent prosperity and strength. 
But the success of the Germans is prophetic of similar 
developments in France, England, Spain, and Italy. In 
Russia the Slav-Scandinavian principalities seem effect- 
ively federated under Kiev. Hungary, Norway, and Den- 
mark appear as powerful and united realms. 

The conversion of Hungary, Russia, and the Scandi- 
navians at this time (or in the next few years) almost 
completes Mediaeval Christendom both in east and west. 
Only one important race (the Lithuanians) remains to be 
added to Christian Europe. 

SCANDINAVIAN activity is at its height. The expan- 
sion of the Scandinavian races now reaches from Greenland 
and America to Russia, Constantinople, and Morocco. 




PAPACY, 1002-48 

General Points 

1. The Western Empire (and German kingdom) at the 
height of its power and prosperity. 

2. The Revival of the Eastern Empire at its height. 

3. Scandinavian activity at its zenith (conquest of Eng- 
land ; beginning of dominion in S. Italy ; attempted 
American colonization ; development in Russia, &c). 

4. Continued progress of Christian Missions among 
northern races. Christendom, eastern and western, attains 
its final extension in Europe, with slight exceptions (Prus- 
sians, Lithuanians, &c, won in thirteenth-fourteenth 

5. Prominence of the Russians, now converted to Greek 
Christianity, under the Grand Princes of Kiev. 

6. Depression of the French kingdom. 

7. Collapse of the Western Caliphate and disruption of 
Spanish Islam. 

8. Beginnings of the Turkish Age in Eastern Islam. 
Turks masters of the Caliph in Baghdad. 

9. Beginnings of the Mediaeval Renaissance in Western 
civilization. Close of the Dark Ages [even in ' Culture '. 
In Politics the new time of life and vigour in Christendom 
begins in the tenth century ; see above, 919, 962, &c.]. 

PERIOD XV : 1002-48 


Struggles of the North African and other Muhammadans 1002-50 
with various Christian powers, especially Pisa and Genoa, 
for the possession of Corsica and Sardinia, which are now 
finally won back for Christendom. Sicily still held by 

Fresh developments of civilization and culture in Western 
Europe. ' It was as if the world were awaking again ' 
(speaks a contemporary), * as if it everywhere threw away 
its old dress, and put on a white vesture of churches.' 

And the churches of the eleventh century ' have a . . i 
character of their own. It is no longer Roman art in 
debasement, but a style fresh and vigorously original — 
the solemn, massive, and enduring architecture ' which 
marks the full development of ' Romanesque ', ' Lombard ', 
or * Norman '. 

About this time we get the earliest certain important 
examples of the art of staining glass (e. g. at Rheims). 

About this time also there is marked progress in the 
higher studies and thought of Western Christendom. 

Expedition from Greenland, under Thorfinn Karlsefne, 1003-6 
to plant a colony in Vineland (N. America). It apparently 
coasts the greater part of Nova Scotia ; attempts to settle 
in the south of this region ; touches Southern Labrador 
and Newfoundland. The colonial experiment fails (native 
hostility ; quarrels of colonists over their women) and the 
fleet returns to Greenland. 

The (Romanesque) cathedral of Mainz completed. Begun 1009 
973, it underwent large additions in the twelfth-fourteenth 
centuries, but remains one of the chief Romanesque build- 
ings north of the Alps. 

Hakim Biamrillah, a mad Fatrmite Caliph, destroys the 1010 
Christian buildings at the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. 
This outrage helps the growth of the crusading spirit in 
Roman Christendom. 


The clan of the Fatimids or Fatimites, who claimed 
descent from Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, 
became the heads of the Ismailian heresy in Islam — an 
offshoot from the main body of Shiite, or non-orthodox 
Muhammadanism, which rejected the traditions (Sunna) 
and the regular line of Caliphs. 

Ismailism gradually developed, as a vast secret society 
in a frankly ' atheistic ' and * Antinomian ' direction, reject- 
ing all fixed rules of religion and morality — actions were 
indifferent, only the internal disposition mattered. It 
adopted an allegorical interpretation of the Kuran, by 
which any doctrine might be defended or rejected. 

The Fatimite leaders founded an independent state in 
.N. Africa, with a capital near Tunis, in 909 — setting up 
a rival Caliphate, and extending their sway to Egypt 
in 969-72, and to Syria before the close of the tenth 
century. The sect of the Assassins was a later develop- 
ment of the same movement, from about 1090. 

1014 Death of Swegen Fork-Beard of Denmark, after re- 
conquering all the old Danelaw (North-East England) for 
the Scandinavian dominion. 

His son Cnut (Knud, ' Canute ') succeeds him. 
The English elect Eadmund Ironside. Desperate fight- 
ing between English and Danes. 

1015 St. Olaf becomes King of Norway and reunites the 
country, settling Christianity as the permanent national 

After St. Olaf rebuilds Trondhjem (Nidaros), now for some 

1015 time the regular capital of Norway [see 996, 1090]. 

1016 Death of Eadmund Ironside. All England submits to 
Cnut and the Danes. Cnut the Great and his Empire of the 
North (Denmark and the English Danelaw, 1014 ; rest of 
England added, 1016; Norway, 1028). 

PERIOD XV : 1002-48 91 

As King of Norway, Cnut was also overlord of the 
various Norse possessions in the Ocean (Orkneys, Hebrides, 
Iceland, Greenland, &c). 

Reign of Yaroslav, ' the Great ', ' the Lawgiver ', as 1016-54 
Grand Prince of Russia, in Kiev. Closer union of the 
Russian Principalities under the suzerainty of Kiev. The 
new Russian civilization, mainly derived from the Eastern 
Empire. The Russian political system long retained the 
old freedom, division of powers, weakness of organization. 
The Tartar Conquest caused (Moscovite) Russia to imitate 
Constantinople here also [see p. 172], 

Basil II completes the conquest of Bulgaria for the 1018 
Byzantine Empire (permanent till 1187). 

Servia also incorporated. Imperial suzerainty over 
Croatia. The Byzantine Revival at its height. 

Norman dominion in S. Italy begins with the County of 1018 
Aversa (mainly the creation of bands of adventurers from 

Church and Hospital of St. John founded in Jerusalem 1020 
by merchants of Amalfi. This is the germ of the later Order 
of the Hospitallers or Knights of St. John [see p. 97]. 

The prosperity and power of the Republic of Amalfi is 
now at its height (throughout eleventh century, to the 

Cathedral of St. Sophia, Kiev (still existing), built by 1020-37 
the Grand Prince of the Russians, Yaroslav the Lawgiver. 
Remarkable work of Byzantine architecture and art in 
early Russia (churches, monasteries, palaces, frescoes, 
mosaics, &c). 

Death of the Emperor (and German King) Henry II 1024 
(' the Saint '). 

End of the Saxon Dynasty, which is succeeded by the 
I Franconian or Salian (1024-1125). 


1025 Death of Basil II of Constantinople. Immense exten- 
sion of the Eastern Empire during his reign, both in Europe 
[see above] and in Asia, where great part of Armenia and 
Caucasia are annexed. 

1027 Conrad II, the first Franconian Emperor, crowned at 
Rome (Cnut the Great present). 

The Eyder made the boundary between Germany and 
Denmark (Schleswig, therefore, definitely assigned to the 
Danish sphere). 

1028 St. Olaf of Norway expelled from his kingdom by an 
invasion of Cnut the Great and rebellion at home. He 
flies to Novgorod, reorganizes his party, and prepares for 
a restoration. 

1030 St. Olaf of Norway, attempting to recover Norway, is 
defeated and slain at Stiklestad. He becomes the national 
saint, and by his ' martyrdom ', more than by his life, 
does much to win the day for Christianity in Scandinavia. 

1031 Break-up of the Western or Spanish Caliphate (' of Cor- 
dova '). The small Moorish states, which result from this, 
are unable to stem the Christian revival and reconquest. 

1030-2 Fresh struggles between Poland and Germany. Conrad 
wins Lusatia (in modern Saxony) for the Empire (1031), 
and compels the Polish king to do him momentary 
homage (1032). 

. 1030- About this time, introduction of the Truce of God 
1050 (Truga or Treuga Dei) in Guienne, whence it spreads to 
the rest of France, and to some other parts of Christendom. 
By this the Church endeavoured to enforce a truce to all 
feuds during Christian festivals, and from the Wednesday 
evening to Monday morning in every week. 

1032-5 Burgundy, through the victorious campaigns of the 
Emperor Conrad II, is united to the Empire, which is thus 
extended to the Rhone valley, the Cevennes, and the coast 

PERIOD XV : 1002-48 93 

of Provence, and includes Lyons, Marseilles, Geneva, 
Besancon, &c. 

The Empire now (and till the fourteenth century) effect- 
ively made up of the three kingdoms — Germany, Italy, 

Death of Cnut the Great. Dissolution of his Empire of the 1035 
North (1035-42). 

Reconquest of Eastern Sicily from Muhammadan rule 1038-42 
by Byzantine armies under George Maniakes. 

The Saljuk (' Seljuk ') Turks from Central Asia conquer 1039 
the west of Persia, and begin to dominate the Eastern 
(Baghdad) Caliphate. 

From that day to this Turkish influence and Turkish 
races have dominated the central lands of Islam. 

Henry III (' the Black '), German King and Emperor. 1039-59 

The German kingdom is never more powerful than in 
this period (except perhaps under Otto I). Victory of the 
central government over internal rivals and difficulties. 

Of the five great dukedoms, Henry keeps three in his 
own hands for a time. 

Increase of pilgrimage to Palestine. [' At this time there c. 1040, 
began to flow towards the Holy Sepulchre so great a multi- &<*• 
tude as ... no man could have hoped for. First went the 
meaner folk, then men of middle rank, and lastly kings 
and counts, marquises and bishops ; aye, and . . . many 
women.' — Ralph Glaber.] 

Partial revolt of Serbia from the Eastern Empire. 1040 

The English Restoration. End of Danish rule. Reign 1042 
of Edward the Confessor (1042-66). 

The Normans form their County of Apulia, and begin 1042 
| to be the dominant power in the extreme south of Italy. 

German war with Hungary. The Hungarian king 1042-4 
i becomes (momentarily) a vassal of the Empire. 


Extension of the Bavarian eastern march (the Oesterreich, 
Austria) to the Leitha (still to-day the eastern frontier of 
the Austrian dominions proper, on the side of Hungary). 

1046 Harald Hardrada becomes King of Norway (d. 1066, 
q.v.) after a life of romantic adventure, often in the service 
of Russian princes and Byzantine sovereigns. His projects 
of North Polar exploration. 

1046 Henry III makes his first expedition to Rome, and 
carries through a fresh German Reformation of the Papacy. 
Three rival popes (including Gregory VI, the champion 
and favourite of the reforming party) are deposed in Synod 
at Rome, and a new (German) pontiff elected as Clement II 
(Suidger, Bishop of Bamberg). With Clement II begins the 
series of austere and high-minded popes which maintains 
the moral position of the Papacy till the death of Boni- 
face VIII (from 1046 to 1303). 

Clement crowns Henry Emperor at Rome. 

C. 1047, Rebuilding of the cathedral of Trier (Treves) — in its 
&c. original form dating from c. 370, perhaps the oldest 
church in NE. Gaul, or Germany, and one of the oldest 
beyond the Alps. 

1048 On the Imperial appointment of Bruno, Bishop of Toul, 
as Pope (Leo IX), Hildebrand and others persuade the new 
pontiff to treat the imperial nomination as insufficient, 
to refer his election to the choice of the Roman clergy 
and people, and generally to adopt the principles of the 
highest Catholic school, as taught at Cluny. Hildebrand 
becomes the chief adviser of the Popedom from this time 
(1048) till he becomes pontiff himself as Gregory VII 

Real but veiled beginning of the struggle between the 
Church, led by the Hildebrandine Papacy, and the Civil power, 
especially as represented in the Empire. The war is more 
openly declared by Gregory VII on his accession, but the 

PERIOD XV : 1002-48 95 

conflict is clearly foreshadowed from 1048, and the period 
1048-73 is marked by various advances of the Ecclesias- 
tical power at the expense of the Secular. 

Hildebrand, a Tuscan, probably of mixed Teutonic and 
native Italian stock, born about 1010 (or slightly later) ; 
a churchman (probably a monk) of the strictest school, first 
at Rome, then at Cluny ; chaplain to Pope Gregory VI 
[deposed by Henry III ; see 1046]. He accompanies 
Gregory VI on his retirement into Germany ; after the 
latter's death, 1048, again withdraws to Cluny. 

Most original and creative of Papal statesmen, the 
extremest developments of Papal theory are due to his 
inspiration. ' Filled with magnificent visions of ecclesias- 
tical grandeur, he pursued his designs with indomitable 
steadiness, . . . far-seeing patience, . . . deep, subtle, and 
unscrupulous policy. He well knew how to avail himself 
of small advantages towards more important ends, or to 
forego the lesser in hope of attaining the greater. He 
knew how to conciliate, . . . flatter, . . . threaten, and 
denounce. Himself impenetrable and inflexible, he was 
especially skilled in understanding . . . other men, and in 
using them as his instruments.'] 




General Points 

1. Development of the ' Hildebrandine ' or ' Ultra- 
montane ' Papacy. Attempt to realize a Papal Monarchy 
over Western Christendom, not only in matters spiritual, 
but also (to a large extent) in matters temporal. 

2. Consequent struggle of the Papacy and the Empire. 

Temporary defeat and abasement of the Emperor. Partial 
Imperial Recovery. 

3. Origin of the (Palestine) crusading movement. (Griev- 
ances of pilgrims. Danger of Eastern Empire, &c.) 

4. Scandinavian activity. (a) Norman Conquest of 
England : Anglo-Norman dominion of William the Con- 
queror, the most powerful state west of the Empire. 
(b) Norman Conquest of South Italy and Sicily. 

5. Progress of Christendom in Spain : partially checked 
by Muslim reinforcement from Africa (' Aim ora vide I 

6. Progress of the Turks in Asia. Their domination at 
Baghdad. Their victories over the Eastern Empire. Asia 
Minor overrun. Constantinople threatened. 

7. Progress of the ' Mediaeval Renaissance '. 
The new Christian culture and commerce. 

Progress of the Commercial Cities of Europe, especially 
in Italy (Flanders, Germany, and Russia also). 

PERIOD XVI : 1048-96 97 

Foundation of the Order of the Hospital or of St. John 1048 j 
of Jerusalem, the oldest of the three great Orders of Military 
Monks (Hospitallers, Templars, Teutonic Knights). 

But until the Crusades, and even until the foundation 
of the Templars, the Hospitallers are mainly concerned 
with the protection of pilgrims an$ the care of the sick 
[see 1020, 1118]. As a military Order, the Hospital largely 
copies the Temple. 

Pope Leo IX visits Germany and France, and holds 1049 
a Council at Rheims. Evident increase of Papal authority 
in the west. All parts of Western Christendom submissive. 
At Rheims ' it was asked, under threat of anathema, 
whether any acknowledged any other Primate of the 
Church. The claim was admitted by a general silence', 
and the Papal Headship was solemnly declared. 

First attacks of the Saljuk Turks upon the Eastern 1050 

Imperial palace at Goslar (near the Harz) founded by C 1050 
Henry III. (Goslar remains to this day one of the most 
interesting monuments of Mediaeval Germany.) 

The Norman influence becomes dominant at the Eng- 1050-1 
lish court (forecast of ' Norman Conquest '). Robert of 
Jumieges Archbishop of Canterbury. Exile of Earl God- 
wine, head of the ' English party \ 

Godwine returns. Exile of the Norman favourites. 1052 
The House of Godwine supreme at court. 

End of Muhammadan domination in Corsica and Sardinia, c. 1050- 

Genoa and Pisa gain control of the islands. itoffo 

Death of Godwine. His son, Earl Harold, succeeds to 1053 
his power. 

Pope Leo IX, defeated and taken prisoner by the Normans 1053 
at the battle of Civitella (' Civitate ') in South Central 
Italy, invests them with all they could conquer in Apulia, 

1765 H 


Calabria, and Sicily, as a fief of the Papacy. [' Since this 
memorable transaction the Kingdom of Naples has remained 
over 700 years a fief of the Holy See.' — Gibbon.] 

1053-4 Final formal breach between the Greek and Roman Churches 
— practically effected in ninth century [see 863-7]. 

1055 The Turkish (Saljuk) Sultan, Togrul Beg, frees the 
Caliph of Baghdad from a number of petty oppressors, and 
is invested with the temporal power of the Caliphate. 

1056 Death of the Emperor Henry III. His infant son, 
Henry IV, succeeds (born 1050). His long, weak, and 
turbulent minority is disastrous to Germany : e. g. in 

(1) Promoting internal disunion and disloyalty; 

(2) Allowing external enemies, especially the Hilde- 

brandine churchmen, to gather strength. 

1058 Harald Hardrada founds Oslo or Opslo [Old Christiania]. 
After the Union of Kalmar this becomes the capital of 
Norway [see 1397]. 

1059 Important council of the Western Church at Rome 
(' Lateran Council of 1059 '). New regulations for elections 
to the Papacy ; elective power now practically vested in the 
cardinals. Implicit challenge to imperial control of Papal 
elections, which are to be made ' saving the honour of 
our beloved son Henry, now . . . King, and hereafter, if God 
permit, Emperor, as we have already granted to him — 
and also of his successors, who shall have personally 
obtained this privilege from the Apostolic See '. 

1059-85 Robert 'Guiscard' ('Wiscard', i.e. the 'Sagacious' or 
1 Cunning '), Duke of the Normans in South Italy. A great 
conqueror and statesman, worthy of comparison with 
William the Conqueror of England. 

1C 60-91 The Norman conquest of Sicily. End of Muhammadan 
domination in the island. 

1061 Completion of (present) cathedral at Speyer [' Spires '] 

PERIOD XVI : 1048-96 99 

on the Middle Rhine (one of the chief examples of Roman- 
esque architecture in Central Europe). 

Earl Harold's campaign in Wales. 1063 

Commencement of the Cathedral of Pisa, one of the chief 1063 
works of mediaeval architecture in Italy. 

Struggles in Germany among the great nobles and 1062-72 
prelates for the control of the boy-king, Henry IV. 

Revolt of Northumbria from Earl Tostig, Harold's 1065 
brother, who is driven out and flies to Norway to ask help 
of Harald Hardrada. 

Edward the Confessor completes his (Norman) church 1065 
of Westminster Abbey. This becomes the coronation- 
place of English sovereigns from 1066 (Harold and William). 

Death of Edward ' the Confessor '. Harold elected as 1066 
his successor. William, Duke of Normandy, claims the 
crown of England, alleging (1) a bequest of the Confessor's ; 

(2) an oath of Harold himself, when shipwrecked on 
the Norman coast, and in William's power, about 1064 ; 

(3) the right of his wife, Matilda of Flanders, a descen- 
dant of King Alfred, through his youngest daughter 

William's claim is rejected, and he gathers a great army 
to enforce it by conquest. The Papal blessing, through 
the influence of Hildebrand, is given to his enterprise, 
which thus takes something of the character of a crusade. 

A Norwegian fleet and army, under Harald Hardrada, 1066 
bring Tostig back to Northumbria. The Norse invasion 
of Yorkshire, undertaken with reckless daring and in- 
sufficient force, is repulsed by Harold of England at 
Stamford Bridge (September 25, 1066). Death of Harald 
Hardrada. [' A masterful man, given to rule in his land ; 
sage of wit ... no lord ever was in Northern Lands so 
deep-witted, or so nimble of counsel' (hence Hardrada). 



1 A mighty warrior, and the boldest under weapons, strong 
and more skilled in arms than any other.' — Harold's Saga.] 

1066 William of Normandy lands with his army at Pevensey. 
Harold hastens south, and fortifies the hill of Battle 
(' Senlac '), near Hastings. In the decisive Battle of 
Hastings (October 14, 1066), Harold is killed, with his 
brothers Gyrth and Leofwin, and his army cut to pieces. 
London and all South-Eastern England submit to William, 
who is crowned king at Westminster, Christmas, 1066. 

1066, St. Stephen and the Trinity, at Caen (the churches of 
&c. the Abbaye-aux-Hommes and the Abbaye-aux-Dames), 
begun by William the Conqueror and his wife Matilda. 

Great age of Norman architecture (till near middle of 
twelfth century). 

1067 The Saljuk Turks fiercely resume their attacks upon the 
Eastern Empire. They are checked, momentarily, by the 
Byzantine armies under the Emperor Romanos Diogenes. 

1067-70 Castle of the Wartburg in Thuringia (Luther's refuge, 
1521-2) built. 

1067-71 English risings against Norman rule, crushed in detail 
(first in south-east, then in west, next in north, finally 
in the Isle of Ely and the Fen country : the great Norman 
Wasting of the North, 1069-70). 

c. 1070- Bergen founded by Olaf Kyrre, King of Norway. 

.q„a The Saljuk Turks gain a decisive victory over the Byzan- 
tines at Manzikert in Armenia. The Emperor is taken 
prisoner. The Turks ravage Asia Minor from end to end, 
and begin to form permanent settlements therein. From 
this time Asia Minor gradually becomes, as it still is, the 
chief western home of the Turkish race. The line of the 
Saljuk Sultans of Rum [i. e. would-be lords of the Eastern 
Borne], first reigning at Nicaea, then at Iconium, and 
aiming at Constantinople, begins 1081. 

PERIOD XVI : 1048-96 101 

St. Mark's Church, Venice, completed. (This finest 1071 
example of Byzantine architecture in Western Europe was 
begun 977.) 

Final end of the Byzantine dominion in Italy. (Sur- 1071 
render of Bari to the Normans, April 1071.) 

Hildebrand becomes Pope, as Gregory VII (April). The 1073 
High Catholic principles are now enforced more rigorously 
than ever ; e.g. (1) total suppression of the marriage of 
the clergy (Nicolaism and clerical concubinage in Hilde- 
brandine language) ; (2) total suppression of Simony, 
extended to mean, not merely the purchase of spiritual 
office, but the obtaining of such office by any kind of 
secular service ; (3) total suppression of lay investiture, 
i.e. the bestowal of secular property and privileges upon 
the clergy (and especially the symbols of high spiritual 
office — ring and pastoral staff) by the temporal power, 
whether a sovereign prince or an inferior lord. 
Revolt of the Saxons against Henry IV. 1073 

Gregory VII plans a crusade, or holy war of Christendom 1073-4 
against Islam, (a) to recover the holy places of Palestine, 
(6) to save the Eastern Empire from the Turks. 

Victory of Henry IV over the Saxons in the battle on 1075 
the Unstrut (in Thuringia). But the opposition to the 
young emperor in Germany remains powerful, and gains 
the upper hand when Henry's quarrel with the Church 
comes to a head. 

Open quarrel between the Empire and the Papacy. 1075-6 
Henry IV, threatened by Gregory with excommunication 
and deposition (December 1075), declares Gregory deposed, 
at the Council of Worms (January 1076). The German 
bishops assent to this. Excommunication and deposition 
of Henry by Gregory in synod at Rome, February 1076. 
A German Diet at Tribur, October 1076, assents to the 
excommunication of Henry, and suspends him from his 


royal office, pending release from the Papal sentence and 
the favourable decision of the final Diet to be held at 
Augsburg in February 1077. 

c. 1075 The Bayeux tapestry completed (a great strip of linen 
worked in coloured worsted with fifty-eight scenes from 
the life of William the Conqueror and the conquest of 
England, perhaps, as the tradition asserts, by Queen 
Matilda, William's wife). 
1077 Henry IV goes into Italy, presents himself before the 
Pope at the Castle of Canossa, in the Apennines, makes 
abject submission, and obtains a conditional Papal absolu- 
tion (January 25-28). For three days he is refused admis- 
sion to the presence of Gregory, and compelled to wait as 
a suppliant in the snow-covered court of the castle. 

1077 The rebel party in Germany elect, as anti-king, Rudolf 
of Swabia (in Diet at Forchheim). 

1077, Rochester Cathedral and Castle (magnificent example of 
&C. Norman fortress) built. 

1078, Building of the original Tower of London (the White 
& c » Tower) by William the Conqueror. 

1079 Winchester Cathedral (the Norman church) commenced 
(great part finished 1093 ; largely rebuilt in Perpendicular 
style from c. 1360). 

1080 Gregory proceeds to a second excommunication and 
deposition of Henry IV and to more stringent decrees 
against lay investiture (March). Henry and his party 
reply with the election of an anti-Pope, Wibert of Ravenna. 

c. 1080 St. Alban's Abbey Church (the Norman building) com- 

C 1080, Colchester Castle, with the largest Norman ' keep ' in 
&c. England, erected (largely with Roman materials). 
1080 Rudolf of Swabia, though victorious, is mortally wounded 
in a battle on the Elster. 

PERIOD XVI : 1048-96 103 

Swabia given to Frederic of Hohenstaufen [see 1138, &c], 
son-in-law of Henry IV. 

Re-capture of Antioch by the Muhammadans (Turkish 1081 
conquest). See 635, 969, 1098, 1268. 

The (present) Cathedral of Mainz commenced. It c. 1081 
embodies part of the former church, mostly destroyed by fire 
1009, restored 1036 and again burnt in 1081. ' The grandest 
monuments of the earlier mediaeval art in Germany are 
the Central Rhenish Romanesque cathedrals of Mainz, 
Speyer, and Worms.' 

Robert Guiscard, at the head of the Norman power in 1081 
S. Italy, attacks the Eastern Empire (with the probable 
ambition of seizing the throne of Constantinople and plant- 
ing a Norman ' Latin ' Empire of the East in place of the 

The Normans (under Guiscard) defeat the Byzantines 
(under the Emperor Alexios Komnenos) outside Durazzo 
(Dyrrhachium) and 

Take Durazzo and march upon Constantinople. Their 1082 
victorious advance is checked by the danger and appeals 
of Pope Gregory (their feudal suzerain) and by the fear Is 

of a German-imperial domination in Italy. 

Henry IV comes down into Italy with a large force ; 1081-4 
twice attacks Rome without success (1081-2) ; at last 
takes the greater part of the city (1083) ; has Wibert 
consecrated as Clement III (March 1084), and is himself 
crowned emperor by Clement (Easter 1084). All this time 
(1083-4) Gregory holds out in the Castle of St. Angelo, 
calling the Normans of Italy to his aid. 

The Norman Cathedral of St. Paul's, London, begun. 1083 

Robert Guiscard advances upon Rome, frees Pope 1084 
Gregory (Henry IV retiring over the Alps), and sacks the 
city, inflicting terrible injuries (May- June 1084). Gregory 


leaves Rome, for good, with the Norman army. (Ancient 
monuments of Rome suffered especially at this crisis.) 

1 084 Foundation of tfie Carthusian Order at the Chartreuse, near 
Grenoble, by Bruno. This Order of Reformed Benedictine 
monks marks the second of the monastic revivals of the 
West — Cluny leading the first, the Cistercian Order the 
third [see 912, 1098]. 

Robert Guiscard resumes his attacks upon the Eastern 
Empire, defeating the Greek and Venetian fleets, and 
raising the siege of Corfu. 

1085 Gregory VII dies at Salerno (May 25). (' Dilexi iustitiam 
et odi iniquitatem, propterea morior in exilio ') — ' a second 
Athanasius, in a more fortunate age of the Church ' 

1085 Death of Robert Guiscard, chief creator of the Norman 
power in Italy (July 17). 'In less than three years ' he 
had delivered the Pope, and compelled 'the Emperors 
of East and West to fly before ' him [Gibbon]. 

Sic uno tempore victi 
Sunt terrae Domini duo : rex Alemannicus iste, 
Imperii rector Romani maximus ille. 
Alter ad arma ruens armis superatur ; et alter 
Nominis auditi sola formidine cessit. 

[William of Apulia.] 

His life is a picture of Scandinavian capacity in war and 

1085 Hildebrandine principles as summarized in the DictatusA* 
Papae : e. g. ' That the Roman Pontiff alone can be rightly 
called Universal ; . . . that his name is unique in the world ; 
. . . that no General Synod [Council of the Church] can 
be called without his command ; . . . that his sentence 
can be annulled by no one ; that he alone can annul the 
sentences of all ; that he can be judged of no one ; that V 
no one may dare to condemn one who has appealed to the 

PERIOD XVI : 1048-96 105 

Apostolic Seat ; . . . that with his permission and by his 
command subjects may bring accusations [against their , 
rulers] ; . . . that he can absolve subjects from their faith v 
to the Unjust ; . . . that he can [lawfully] depose Emperors ;v 
. . . that all princes shall kiss the feet of the Pope alone ;\/ 
. . . that the Roman Church has never erred and will never 
err, the Scripture being witness ; . . . that no one may be 
accounted Catholic, who does not agree with the Roman 

Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon permanently recovers 1085 
the old Christian capital of Toledo. His raids to the Ocean 
and Mediterranean. Danger of Spanish Islam. To avoid 
complete political extinction, the Muslims of Andalusia 
call in the African (Moorish) ' Almoravides ', the warlike 
followers of the Marabut or ' Preacher '. ' Better be a 
camel-driver in Africa than a swine-herd in Castile.' 

William the Conqueror orders a general survey of all 1085-6 
England and of the possessions of all his subjects in Eng- 
land (the Domesday Survey). The result of the survey 
is Domesday Booh (1086). ' So . . . narrowly did he cause 
the survey to be made that there was not a . . . rood of 
land, nor an ox, nor a cow, nor a pig passed by, that was 
not set down in the accounts — it is shame to tell what 
he thought no shame to do ' [Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 
A. d. 1085]. 

At a special Great Court at Salisbury, William convenes 
\ all the landholding men of substance in England whose- 
soever vassals they were, and exacts a direct oath of 
allegiance from them, that they would be faithful to him 
against all others '. Thus he breaks through the inter- 
mediate feudal ties to inferior lords, and checks the growth 
of ' feudalism in government ', which had already proved 
so disastrous in France and so dangerous in Germany. 

The Christian advance in Spain is checked by the great 1086 


battle of Zalakka (Sacralias). But Toledo and the heart 
of the Peninsula are retained by Castile-Leon. 
Before Buildings of William the Conqueror at the royal castle 
1087 of Windsor. (Earlier buildings existed here, with a wooden 
enclosing stockade, under the later Anglo-Saxon kings.) 

1087 Death of William the Conqueror, and temporary division 
of his empire among his sons : accession of William the 
Red [Rufus] in England, of Robert in Normandy. 

1 This King William . . . was a very wise and great man, 
more honoured and powerful than any of his predecessors 
. . . mild to those good men who loved God, but stark 
beyond measure towards those who withstood his will . . . 
very stern and wrathful, so that none durst do anything 
against his will. He imprisoned those earls who acted 
against his pleasure. He removed bishops . . . and abbots 
... he imprisoned thanes ... he spared not his own brother. 

1 The good order . . . William established . . . was such 
that any man who was himself aught, might travel over 
the kingdom with a bosom-full of gold unmolested ; and 
no man durst kill another. . . . He was given to avarice, 
and greedily loved gain. ... He loved the high deer as if 
he were their father. . . . The rich complained, and the 
poor murmured, but he . . . recked nought of them ; they 
must will all the king willed, if they would live.' 
c. 1088 Beginnings of the University of Bologna, the earliest of 
the great permanent European centres of higher learning. 

1088 Death of Lambert of Hersfeld, German historian. 

J. 1088- The idea of a crusade, to free Palestine and especially 
1095 Jerusalem from infidel rule, and to restore them to Christen- 
dom, almost brought to a head by Gregory VII in 1073-4, 
is revived by Pope Urban II, a disciple of Hildebrand 
(1088-99), and preached far and wide by the hermit 
Peter of Amiens, and others. The grievances of Christian 
pilgrims in Syria had largely increased since the Saljuk 

PERIOD XVI : 1048-96 107 

Turks had become masters. The danger of Constantinople 
in particular, and of Eastern Christendom in general, 
specially appealed to Gregory VII, and was of great force 
in 1088-96. But the primary cause was in the fresh 
vigour and expansive energy of Western Christendom, 
seeking an outlet. The master-mind which finally organized 
the First Crusade was that of Urban. 

Commencement of the great church of the Abbey of 1089 
Cluny in its final form. When completed in 1311, it 
became, until the erection of the new St. Peter's at Rome, 
the largest church in Christendom. It was ruined at the 
French Revolution. 

Beginning of Trondhjem Cathedral, ' still the finest c. 1090 
ecclesiastical edifice in Norway ' (though the Gothic nave 
is now utterly ruined), and for centuries the place of 
coronation of the Norwegian sovereigns [see 996, 1015]. 

The first (Norman) Cathedral of Lincoln completed 1092 
(begun 1074). 

Durham Cathedral (the present Norman church, the finest 1093 
example of this style in England) begun. 

Crusade Council at Clermont-Ferrand in Auvergne (1095). 1095 
Great concourse, representative of both the clergy and laity 
of Christendom, Urban II presiding. The Pope's address 
and appeal. Passionate enthusiasm of the response : 
' It is the will of God ' (Deus vult). Similar response 
throughout great part of Roman Christendom. Pre- 
parations for the crusade. 



General Points 

1. Opening of the crusading movement in the Levant 
with fair success. Conquest of Jerusalem, Antioch, and 
great part of Palestine and Syria. Beginnings of new 
Oriental influence upon Europe. 

2. Beginning of the Orders of Knighthood as fully- 
developed military and monastic brotherhoods, primarily 
to defend the crusading conquests in Syria. 

3. Partial revival of the Eastern Empire, through the 
relief afforded by the First Crusade. 

4. Rising importance of the Italian (and other South 
European) commercial cities ; another consequence (in part) 
of the crusading movement. 

5. Truce in the struggle between Empire and Papacy 
(and between Spiritual and Civil Power, generally, in W. 

PERIOD XVII : 1096-1122 109 

The Syrian Crusades (1076-1270) are the most important 
enterprises of Christendom as a whole in the Middle Ages 
or in modern times (as after the thirteenth century we do 
not find Christendom acting collectively, to any great 
extent — but only, as a rule, by nations). They end, in 
the thirteenth century, in political and military failure ; 
but their indirect effects are of the deepest and most 
permanent character. In a great measure they civilize 
Roman Christendom, introducing to it the culture, refine- 
ment, and luxury, and helping it to share in the wealth, 
of the East. A new Free Thought, and a new interest in 
and study of Nature, are among the chief results of the 
earlier Crusades. Effective movements of Syrian Crusade 
end with the close of the Twelfth Century [see 1190-1, 

Start of the First Crusade. 1096 

Various ' unofficial ', ill-organized, and ineffective bands 
of Crusaders start before the real army is ready. But the 
latter is composed of five distinct bodies, numbering in 
all perhaps 250,000 men, who march by different routes 
to Constantinople, where they unite and march across 
Asia Minor to North Syria. The leaders are : 

1. Godfrey 'of Bouillon', Duke of Lower Lotharingia, 

first ruler of the new Crusading State of Jeru- 

2. His brother Baldwin of Boulogne, afterwards Lord 

of Edessa (1098-1100) and King of Jerusalem 

3. Bohemund of Tarentum, son of Robert Guiscard ; 
with whom went 

4. Tancred, Bohemund's cousin, afterwards Lord of 
Antioch. / 

5. Raymond, Count of Toulouse, v 

6. Bishop Adhemar of Puy, Papal Legate. 


7. Robert of Normandy, son of William the Conqueror ;1 
with whom went / 

8. Stephen, Count of Blois ; and * 

9. Robert of Flanders. v 

The various bodies having united in the neighbourhood 
of Constantinople, most of the leaders take an oath of 
fealty to the (Byzantine) Emperor Alexios Komnenos, 
promising to hold their conquests in fief of the Empire. 

1097 They then help to besiege and take Nicaea (Nikaia, 
' Nice '), the capital of the Saljuk Sultan of Rum, and 
make it over to Alexios. Thence they march overland to 
Antioch, suffering much from Turkish attacks in the 
upland of Asia Minor, but saving themselves in the battle 
of Dorylaeum (July 1, 1097). 

1097-8 Arrived before Antioch , they besiege the city for nine 
months and take it in the early summer of 1098. Great 
Muhammadan attempt at recovery, under Kerboga, Amir 
of Mosul (Nineveh), repulsed (June 28, 1098). 

Antioch given as a principality to Bohemund. No 
leading Syrian city was so long in Christian hands. 
Taken by the Muhammadans in 635, it was recovered by 
Nikephoros Phokas in 969, and retained by the Eastern 
Empire till 1084. It was held by the Crusaders from 1098 
to 1269. 

1098 Meanwhile Baldwin, turning farther east, crosses the 
Euphrates after the capture of Tarsus, takes Edessa, and 
founds there (Easter, 1098) the most northerly, most 
outlying, and most short-lived of crusading principalities 
(lost 1144). 

1098 Feundation of the Cistercian Order, under Robert, Abbot 
of Molesme, at Citeaux in Burgundy [see 912, 1084]. St. 
Bernard of Clairvaux, though not the founder, soon 
becomes practical Chief of the Order [see 1115, &c.]. 

PERIOD XVII : 1096-1122 111 

Siege and storm of Jerusalem (June 6 — July 15). Terrible 1099 
massacre by the Crusaders. 

Election of Godfrey of Bouillon as sovereign of the 
new crusading kingdom (' of Jerusalem '). 

He refuses the title of king, and rules as Baron of the 
Holy Sepulchre (1099-1100). Baldwin I, his brother, 
succeeds as king (1100). 

Possible, but doubtful, reference to the use of the magnet 1099 
in navigation by an Italian versifying chronicler (William 
of Apulia, in his De Rebus Normannorum). 

Establishment of a perfect Feudal organization in the new From 
Crusading States of the East : a kingdom (of Jerusalem) 1100 
with vassal counties (Antioch and Edessa ; with Tripolis 
from 1109). 

Building of Westminster Hall, and rebuilding of Old 1097- 
London Bridge, about this time. 1100 

The Tower of London area walled round. 

Accession of Henry I of England. He issues a Charter 1100 
forbidding the exactions and abuses practised under Wil- 
liam II, and restoring the ' law of Edward the Confessor '. 

Accession of Baldwin I, first King of Jerusalem. 

Zenith of crusading prosperity in the Levant. 

The first cathedral at (old) Upsala commenced. C 1100 

Upsala had been the religious centre of heathen Sweden, 
and it took the same place in Christian times. It was 
also one of the chief royal residences; but till the fourteenth 
century Sweden had no regular fixed capital (after the 
French and English manner) ; then Stockholm took the 

Power of Hungary about this time. Prosperous reigns c. 1100, 
of LadislausI (1077-95) and Koloman (1095-1114); con- &c ° 
quest of Croatia, part of Galicia. and Dalmatia (1102), the 
last giving Hungary an extensive seaboard on the Adriatic, 
and depressing the power and influence of Venice. 


c. 1100, Great increase of pilgrimage to Syria. 

The ' war of the investitures ' is extended to England. 
Struggle between Henry I and Archbishop Anselm (1 103-6) 

1105 Death of the Emperor Henry IV. Henry V succeeds. 
1 If his sins were great, few men have borne heavier punish- 
ment than Henry IV.' His fifty years' reign, ' almost 
unparalleled in . . . Europe for its length of wretchedness ' 
[Stubbs]. [See 1075-7, 1080-4, &c] 

1106 Henry of England crushes the party of his brother 
Robert and masters Normandy (battle of Tinchebrai). 

Restoration of the Anglo-Norman Empire, 

1107 The investiture quarrel settled in England [see 1122], 
by agreement between Henry I and Archbishop Anselm. 

1108 Accession of Louis VI of France (1108-37), under whom 
the royal power at last begins to increase, mainly through 
the work of the chief French statesman of this time, Abbot 
Suger of St. Denys. 

110&-10 The Leaning Towers at Bologna (' Asinelli ' and ' Gari 
sanda ') completed. 

1111 Death of Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1033 at 
or near Aosta. in Italy), one of the leading mediaeval saints, 
thinkers, and churchmen — ' the first scholastic philosopher ' 
[not reckoning John Scotus Erigena among the Schoolmen ; 
see 877]. His ' ontological proof ' of the existence of God. 
Anselm' s philosophical value not fully appreciated in the 
Middle Ages. His speculations have an originality and force 
greatly beyond the average of even the better Scholastic work. 

1111 Momentary triumph of the Empire over the Papacy. 
Henry V occupies Rome, makes captive Pope Paschal II, 
and forces him to perform the imperial coronation, and 
to acknowledge the imperial right of investiture. These 
acts and concessions are repudiated on the retirement of 
the Emperor, by a Roman (Lateran) Council. 

PERIOD XVII: 1096-1122 113 

The old Cathedral of Laon burnt. The present church 1112 
is begun soon after this. 

St. Bernard, the Cistercian, founds the Abbey of Clair- 1115 
vaux [see 1098]. 

Foundation of the Order of the Temple (of Solomon), the 1118 
most famous, and for a time the most popular and important 
of the Orders of Military Monks who play so great a part 
in the Middle Ages. The first Templars are nine French 
knights, who take Hugh de Payens, the first Grand 
Master (1118-36), for their leader [see 1048]. 

Completion of Pisa Cathedral (begun 1063). 1118 

Commencement of the (present) Cathedral of Chartres, c. 1120 
one of the most splendid examples of mediaeval archi- 
tecture [see 1194]. 

The struggle of the Empire and the Papacy temporarily 1122 
closed by the Concordat of Worms, which marks on the 
whole a balance of success for the Secular Power. 

(i) In Germany [as in England ; see 1107] the civil 
power gives up, in name, the claim to appoint bishops and 
abbots. The cathedral chapter (or monastic body) is to 
elect the bishop ; the monks of the abbey are to elect 
the abbot ; but the election is to take place in the presence 
of the Emperor, or his representative. Formal investiture 
by the Emperor is abandoned, but the prelate-elect is to 
receive from the Emperor ' the property and immunities 
of his office', not with ring and staff, but with sceptre. 
Bishops and abbots were ' to render the homage which was 
the sign of their readiness to employ their temporal wealth 
and power on behalf of the State '. 

(ii) In Italy and Burgundy much the same compromise 
is made, but here ' let the prelate receive his regalia six 
months after consecration '. 




General Points 

1. Fresh Monastic Revival, led by the Cistercians, in the 
Western Church. 

2. Revived strength of the German kingdom and the 

German expansion beyond the Elbe. 

3. First signs of increased power in the French kingdom. 

4. Formation of the Anglo-Angevin Empire, ending an 
orgy of feudal anarchy in England. 

5. Beginning of the kingdom of Portugal. 

6. Commercial and Social Developments. Growing 
prosperity of trading cities, especially in Italy. 

7. Intellectual Developments. 
Advances of Scholasticism. 

The New Western Literatures. New critical spirit. 

Struggles of Orthodoxy and Free Thought. 

PERIOD XVIII : 1122-54 115 

Death of Roscelin, a leading Schoolman, teacher of c. 1122 
Abelard, and one of the founders of Nominalism. 

Lincoln Cathedral rebuilding begun [see 1092,1147]. 1123 

Otto of Bamberg, ' Apostle of Pomerania ', preaches 1124, 
among the Slavonic Wends of the South Baltic country. 1127 

The Order of the Hospital (of St. John of Jerusalem) 1131 
transformed into an Order of Military Monks on the 
pattern of the Templars [see 1020, 1048, 1118]. 

The ' Jews' House ' and ' John of Gaunt's Stables ' at c. 1130- 
Lincoln, and ' School of Pythagoras ' at Cambridge, some 1140 
of the oldest specimens of domestic [non-baronial] archi- 
tecture in England. 

The hall of Oakham Castle also belongs to about this 

Lothair of Saxony (German king, 1125-37) makes his 1132 
first expedition to Rome and is crowned emperor by Pope 
Innocent II. 

Fresh advances of German conquest, colonization, and 1125-34 

proselytism beyond the Elbe. Many Slav [Wendish] tribes 
submit and accept Christianity : others destroyed. 

Since about 983 [which see] German progress beyond 
the Elbe has been checked by Slavonic and heathen 

The Altmark, &c, granted to Albert the Bear (1134), 
who conquers the whole region of (later) Berlin. This 
region now begins to be known as Brandenburg, after its 
chief township. The Mark of Meissen, farther south (near 
Dresden), granted to Conrad of Wettin. Defeat of the 
Danes : Holstein granted to Adolf, Count of Schauenburg. 

Completion of the (Norman) Cathedral of Canterbury 1130 
(begun 1070, and almost entirely converted into Gothic 
after 1174). 



1130-50 The Norman Roger II, King of Sicily, makes his court 
one of the chief centres of civilization in Europe. His 
encouragement of Literature and Natural Science. Blend 
of Christian and Muhammadan culture in his dominions. 
Idrisi (' Edrisi ') compiles his Arabic Geography at the 
court of Sicily, and dedicates it to Roger. Architecture 
in the Norman-Italian state. Roger defeated by the 
Emperor Lothair and temporarily driven from the Italian 
mainland into Sicily. 

1134-48 Malachi, Bishop of Armagh (and Down), a friend of 
St. Bernard, works for the union of the Irish Church with 
Rome (completed by 1152). 

1137 Death of Louis VI of France, under whom royal power 
had begun to grow [see 1108]. First signs of the future 
greatness of the French monarchy. Accession of the devout 
and weak Louis VII [1137-80]. 

1138-53 Civil War and Anarchy in England ; parties of Stephen 
and Matilda. Practical loss of Northumberland and 
Cumberland to the Scots. Battle of the Standard, or 
Northallerton, 1138. Scottish invasion of Yorkshire thrown 
1138- The House of Hohenstaufen in Germany (' Die Staufer ') 
1254 named after the Castle of Staufen in Swabia (now in 
SW. Bavaria, about thirteen miles NW. of Sonthofen). 

1138-52 Conrad III, first of the Hohenstaufen, elected by the 
Anti-Saxon party. Desperate struggle with Saxons and 
Bavarians. The Anti- and Pro-Staufer parties now become 
known as Guelf and Ghibelline, after Welf of the reigning 
House of Bavaria, and Waiblingen, a Hohenstaufen castle 
in Wurttemberg, about 7J miles ENE. of Stuttgart. 
(Guelf and Ghibelline are Italian corruptions of these 
names. They became party war-cries, to denote Papalists 
and Imperialists, from the thirteenth century to the end 
of the fifteenth.) 

PERIOD XVIII : 1122-54 117 

St. Bernard of Glairvaux, the great leader of the Cis- 1138 
tercian Revival in Monastic Life, ends a Schism in the 
Papacy : his influence dominant at the Papal court and in 
Roman Christendom, 1138-53. 'The chief representative 
of the strongest feelings of his age, the model of the 
character it most revered, he found himself elevated to 
such influence as no ecclesiastic, before or since, has ' 
surpassed [Robertson]. 

Progress of Portugal. Victory of Ourique over the Moors. 1139 
Count Affonso Henriques, the victor, declares himself king. 
The new Portuguese kingdom does not yet include Lisbon 
nor extend quite to the Tagus. 

Bernard's controversies with Peter Abelard (Abailard), c. 1130- 
the champion of the New Thought. Abelard's work in the 1142 
Schools of Paris from c. 1100. 

Arnold of Brescia, pupil of Abelard, prominent as a critic c. 1140, 
of the Church. &C. 

Norwich Cathedral completed (begun 1096) : after 1140 
Durham this ranks first among the Norman churches of 

The Nibelungenlied, the chief work of German poetry of c. 1140 
the early or ' heroic ' period, takes final form. 

Completion (in great part) of the Abbey Church of St. 1140-4 
Denys, near Paris, in its present form, by Abbot Suger, the 
chief adviser of the French kings Louis VI and Louis VII 
in the middle of the twelfth century. Frankish kings had 
been buried in the earlier church on this site from 638 : 
Abbot Suger' s church is the burial-place of the French 
kings of the succeeding centuries. It is a typical example 
of Romanesque developing into Gothic. 

Death of Abelard, ' the founder of Modern Criticism ', 1142 
the first great modern champion of a ■ moderate rationalism ', 
greatest of university teachers of the twelfth century, 
one of the first important names in French Literature. 


Mainly through him, Paris becomes ' the hearth where 
the intellectual bread of the whole World is baked \ 
(Twenty of his pupils said to have become cardinals ; 
fifty, bishops.) 

1143-80 Manuel Komnenos, the last powerful Byzantine emperor, 
1 the first man among Christians ' (to his admirers). 

1144 Recapture of Edessa by the Muhammadans under Imad- 
ud-Din Zangi, Atabeg of Mosul, the first restorer of 
Muslim power in the Levant after the crusading conquests 
of 1097-1130. The fall of Edessa is the immediate cause 
of the next Crusade, which is preached, especially by 
St. Bernard of Clairvaux, in the next years. 
1144, Imperial palace at Gelnhausen, in the Rhineland, built 
&C (additions 1190-1200). 

1147-9 Second Crusade, led by the Emperor Conrad III of 
Germany and Louis VII of France. 

The main armies march by the overland route, through 
Hungary and the Balkan Peninsula, to Asia Minor. 
Here the German army suffers severely : part returns 
home. Most of the remainder, marching on overland to 
Cilicia, are destroyed. Conrad finally makes his way (like 
Louis VII and the French nobles) by sea to the Holy 
Land. The Crusade ends in complete failure (futile attempt 
on Damascus). Frederick of Swabia, the future Emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa, nephew and successor of Conrad III, 
takes part in this Crusade. 

The maritime route of the crusaders, after ill success on 
land, is noteworthy, and forecasts future events. 

1147-9 While the German king is absent on the Crusade, German 
expansion is renewed at home, under Henry the Lion of 
Saxony, Albert the Bear of Brandenburg, and Conrad of 
Wettin, as a crusade against the heathen Slavs (Wends) 
of Mecklenburg, Pomerania, &c. Advances of Teutonic 
conquest, colonization, and conversion. 

PERIOD XVIII : 1122-54 119 

The rebuilding of Lincoln Cathedral finished, in its 1147 
Norman form (almost entirely replaced by Gothic, later; 
see 1123). 

Lisbon permanently recovered for Christendom by Affonso 1147 
Henriques and his Portuguese, with the aid of crusaders 
from England, Flanders, &c, on their way to the Holy 
Land by sea. The city, already one of the greatest towns 
of Muslim Spain, becomes the capital of the new kingdom 
of Portugal. 

Eleanor of Aquitaine, divorced from Louis VII of France, 1152 ^y 
marries Henry of Anjou (Henry II of England). 

Conrad III chooses as his heir his nephew Frederick of 1152 
Swabia : the latter is unanimously elected by the princes 
of the Empire in Frankfurt-on-Main and crowned at 
Aachen as Frederick I. 

Frederick I, 'Barbarossa' (Red Beard), German king 1152- 
and Emperor, one of the chief sovereigns, statesmen, and 1190 
warriors of the Middle Ages. The policy of this ' Imperial 
Hildebrand ' is directed towards a revival of the fullest 
imperial authority, not merely in Germany itself, but in 
the other possessions of the Empire. Hence his great 
struggle against the Papacy and the City Republics of Italy. 
Though defeated in S. Europe, he is fairly successful in 
the German lands, and crushes all movements towards 

Henry of Anjou lands in England and by the Treaty of 1153 
Walling ford is recognized as heir to the English Crown. 

Commencement of the Baptistery at Pisa (finished 1153 

Death of King Stephen of England. Henry of Anjou 1154 
succeeds as Henry II, the head of an Anglo-Angevin Empire 
reaching from the Tyne to the Pyrenees, and including all 
Western France (in the latter, nominally vassal to the 


French king). In 1169-71, &c, much of the eastern part of 
Ireland is added to this Empire, which is shattered in 1204 
(by the loss of Normandy, &c). Henry's work as an 
administrator makes him one of the leading figures in 
English history. 

1154 The 'Campanile', or bell-tower of St. Mark's, Venice, 
finished [begun 1148.] 




General Points 

1. Vigorous struggle of the German kingdom (finally 
ending in failure) to establish real supremacy in Italy. 

2. The imperial power, defeated in Italy, maintains 
itself in Germany. 

3. Increase in the power and prosperity of the City 
Republics of Italy. 

4. Increased strength and security of the Papacy. 

5. The Angevin Empire at its height. 

6. Muhammadan Revival in the Levant destroys the 
Crusading states, except certain fragments. 

7. Progress in Civilization (literature, art, science, 
philosophy, &c. Earliest European notice of the magnet 
in navigation). 


1154-5 First expedition of Frederick Barbarossa to Italy, to 
restore the full imperial power beyond the Alps, Frederick 
crowned King of Italy at Pa via and Emperor at Rome by 
Adrian IV (Nicholas Breakspear, the only English Pope), 
who had begged for imperial aid against Roman Republican 
and heretical movements. 

Arnold of Brescia, captured by the imperial forces, 
handed over to the Church, condemned, and burnt as 
a heretic. 

1156 Austria separated from Bavaria and created a Duchy. 

1157 Frederick holds an Imperial Diet at Wurzburg : embassies 
from the Eastern Empire, England, Denmark, Hungary. 

Submission of the nobles of Burgundy to the Empire at 
Besancon. Imposing position of the imperial power, to 
which several Christian states beyond the territorial limits 
of the Empire now do homage. 

1157-63 Frederick attacks Poland, forces it to acknowledgement 
of the imperial supremacy, and begins the detachment of 
Silesia from Poland and its attachment to Germany 
[German colonization here after 1163]. 

1158 The Royal Crown and title conferred by Frederick on the 
Duke of Bohemia. 

1158-62 Second expedition of Frederick to Italy. Milan and the 
other Lombard cities submit. 
1158 Diet on the Roncaglian Fields (Piacenza) : the imperial 
rights over the cities defined. 
1160-2 Milan revolts afresh, and is besieged. 

1162 On its surrender, after two years' siege, Frederick orders 
the neighbouring towns to undertake the destruction of its 
walls and buildings. His order, in great part, obeyed ( 1 1 62) . 
1159-62 Meantime, schism in the Papacy. Alexander III (enemy 
of Frederick Barbarossa, friend and supporter of Thomas 
Becket) elected by the majority of the Cardinals ; Victor IV 

PERIOD XIX : 1154-87 


by the imperialist minority. Alexander defies the imperial 
claims in Rome, and excommunicates Frederick, but is 
forced to fly from Italy to France (1162). 

Travels of the Spanish Jew Benjamin of Tudela in Italy, c. 1159- 
the Byzantine Empire, the lands of the Eastern Caliphate, 1173 
&c. Importance of his record. 

Abbey of Crowland in the English Fens completed. c. 1160 

' Leaning Tower ' (Campanile of the Cathedral), Pisa, 

Death of Peter Lombard, the ' Master of the Sentences ', 1160 
Bishop of Paris (born circa 1100 at Novara, in NW. Italy). 
His collection of Sentences, or opinions of the Christian 
Fathers, became a leading text-book all over Roman 
Christendom, and gave rise to many commentaries. It 
is among the most popular and influential works of the 
' Schoolmen '. 

Erection of the Church of the Templars at Thomar, in c. 1162 
Central Portugal, one of the finest examples of the ' round 
Sepulchre church ' in Christendom. 

After Frederick's departure, the anti-imperial party in 1163-6 
Italy revives. Pope Alexander returns to Rome. 

In England, Constitutions of Clarendon [a determined 1164 
effort to check the Ecclesiastical power — e.g. beneficed 
clergy not to leave the realm without the king's permis- 
sion ; tenants-in-chief of the Crown not to be excommuni- 
cated without the king's knowledge ; villeins not to be 
ordained without their lords' consent ; criminous clerks 
to be brought under the jurisdiction of the king's court, 
and, if found guilty, not to be protected by the Church] . 

Assize of Clarendon revises the provincial administra- 1166 
tion of justice in England. Jury of Presentment ordered 
in criminal cases. General visitation of England by Itinerant 


1164-7 Formation of the (anti-imperial) Lombard League 
(Cremona, Brescia, Mantua, Verona, Padua, &c.). 

1166-8 Frederick's Fourth Italian Expedition. The Emperor 
escorts his anti-Pope Paschal III (successor of Victor IV) 
to Rome ; Alexander taking refuge, like Gregory VII, with 
the Normans of S. Italy. 

1168 Frederick's unsuccessful siege of Rome. His army 
destroyed by pestilence. The Emperor escapes over the 
Alps, almost without attendants. Rebuilding of Milan 
by the Lombard League. 

1168 Foundation of Alessandria (so named after Pope 
Alexander III, the friend and ally of the League). 

1169 Overthrow of the Supremacy of Kiev in Russia (since 
c. 880 Kiev has been the head of the Russian principalities, 
race, and religion). After this the supremacy fluctuates 
between various principalities [Vladimir, Suzdal, &c], and 
finally passes to Moscow in the fourteenth century. 

e. 1170 Poem of The Cid (Spanish Romantic literature). 
e. 1170 Earliest (?) notices of the Waldenses — ' Protestants of 
the Middle Ages ' [cf , note on the Albigenses, p. 134]. 

1170 Murder of Thomas Becket in his own Cathedral of 
Canterbury. Reaction in favour of the Church in its 
conflict with the secular power 5 e. g. with Henry II in 
England and the Angevin lands, Frederick Barbarossa 
in Germany, Italy, Burgundy, &c. 

1174-8 Frederick's Fifth Italian Expedition. Fruitless siege of 
Alessandria by the imperialists. Disaffection among the 
German forces. Henry the Lion refuses to follow the 
Emperor, who is now opposed by the whole strength of 
the Lombard League and the Papacy, aided by the Eastern 
Empire [Manuel Komnenos, see p. 118]. 
1176 Battle of Legnano (sixteen miles north-west of Milan). 
Decisive defeat of the imperialists. 

PERIOD XIX : 1154-87 125 

End of the Italian war. Frederick admits his defeat^ 
accepts in principle the main demands of the Italian cities 
and the Pope, and sets himself to minimize his misfortunes, 
and especially to secure his position at home in Germany 
[see 1183]. 

Assize of Northampton. Instructions to Itinerant 1176 

Meeting and ' reconciliation ' of Pope and Emperor at 1177 

Frederick is crowned King of Burgundy at Aries, and 1178 
returns to Germany [note the connexion still maintained 
at the close of the twelfth century between the Burgundian 
kingdom, including Lyons and all the SE. of Modern 
France, and the Holy Roman Empire of the German 

Frederick Barbarossa triumphant over rebellious move- 1180-1 
ments in Germany. Submission of Henry the Lion of Saxony, 
the chief leader of these movements ; banished for three 
years, he goes to the court of Henry II of England, his 
father-in-law. Division of the Duchy of Saxony, large 
parts of it becoming ' immediate ' possessions of the Empire 
(e.g. Holstein, Schwerin, Oldenburg, Liibeck, &c.) ; other 
portions fall to Bernhard of Askania, son of Albert the 
Bear ; to the See of Cologne ; and to Bavaria (House of 
Wittelsbach). Frederick thus pursues his imperial and 
national policy — to weaken the great duchies by dividing 

Methods of Insurance begin to be popular in some parts c. 1180- 
of Europe, especially in the Commercial Republics of *^0, 

Earliest clear [European] references to the use of the c. 1180- 
magnetie needle in navigation, in the works of Alexander 1186 
Neckam of St. Albans and Paris. From these references 
it is clear that the practical use of the compass had been 


established for some time among certain European seamen. 
Probably this first took place in Italy, in one of the com- 
mercial republics (Amain, Genoa, Pisa, or Venice ?). 

1183 Final Peace of Constance between the Empire and the 
Lombard cities. By this the Italian cities are ' maintained 
in all the regalian rights, whether within their walls or 
in their district, which they could claim by usage . . . 
especially . . . those of levying war, erecting fortifications, 
administering civil and criminal justice . . . and nominating 
their consuls of other magistrates, who were to receive 
investiture of office from an imperial legate. The Emperor 
was authorized to appoint in every city a judge of appeal 
in civil causes. The Lombard League was confirmed, and 
the cities were ... to renew it at . . . discretion, but . . . 
to take every ten years an oath of fidelity to the Emperor { 
[see 1176]. 

1184-6 Frederick Barbarossa, on his sixth and last Italian visit 
(wholly peaceful), marries his son Henry (the future Emperor 
Henry VI) to Constance, daughter of the Norman king 
Roger II, heiress of the Norman kingdom in S. Italy and 
Sicily. ' Legnano neutralized.' 

c. 1185 Saladin (Salah-ud-Din Yusuf), Sultan of Egypt from 
1173, master of Muhammadan Syria by 1183 (conquest 
of Aleppo), becomes supreme in the Muslim world of the 
Levant, and prepares his decisive attack upon the Cru- 
sading states. 

1185 The Temple Church in London (the round church) com- 
pleted, and consecrated by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, then 
on a visit to W. Europe to procure aid against Saladin. 

1187 Saladin destroys the crusading army near the Sea of 
Galilee (battle of the Horns of Hattin, July 4), takes 
Jerusalem (October 2), and conquers almost all Christian 





ENGLAND, 1187-1215 

General Points 

1. The power of the (Hildebrandine) Papacy at its height. 

2. The Third Crusade, the last real exertion of the full 
strength of Western Christendom in the Syrian Holy War. 
Partial success ; predominant failure. 

3. A fresh ' Latin expansion ' eastwards marked by 
the Fourth Crusade, and the foundation of a ' Latin Empire ' 
of Constantinople, conclusive evidence of the perversion 
of the crusading spirit and movement. 

4. Fatal weakening of the Eastern Empire, so long the 
chief bulwark of Europe and Christendom in the Levant. 

5. Rise of Venice to a dominant commercial and naval 
position in the Levant (and more or less over the whole 
Mediterranean), another consequence of the Fourth Crusade. 

6. Victorious struggle of the Latin Church with heresy in 
S. France, &c. Beginnings of the Inquisition and of the Friars. 

7. Destruction, in large measure, of the Anglo-Angevin 
Empire in France. 

8. First real appearance of the great French monarchy. 

9. Promise of a new English (Anglo-Norman) Nationality 
and of English liberties. 

10. Decisive success of the Spanish Crusade. Break-up 
of Muslim power in Andalusia. 

11. Developments in civilization (literature, art, science, 
philosophy, &c. Buildings ; University progress). 


1187-9 Immense excitement in Christendom resulting from the 
fall of the kingdom of Jerusalem. Preaching of a new 
Crusade (the third, 1189-92), in which the Emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa, Richard I of England, and Philip II 
(called afterwards 'Augustus') of France, take part. 

1188 Saladin Tithe in England, the first English taxation of 
Personality or movable property (somewhat anticipated in 
Assize of Arms, 1181). 

1189-92 The Third Crusade : (a) the Emperor Frederick, starting 
from Ratisbon, goes overland to Asia Minor, captures 
Kuniyah (Iconium), and is drowned in Cilicia (1190). 
Many of the German crusaders return. The rest go on to 
Palestine by way of Antioch and Tyre, help these cities 
against the Saracens, and take part in the siege of Acre. 

(6) Richard Cceur de Lion and Philip Augustus go by 
sea, joining forces at Marseilles. (1190), and making six 
months' stay in Sicily (September 1190 — March 1191). 
On the way to Acre, Richard overruns Cyprus (May 1191). 
Acre, besieged by crusading forces since August 28, 1189, 
surrenders July 12, 1191, in spite of the desperate attempts 
of Saladin to relieve it. 

Relations between French and English kings and 
crusaders grow worse. Philip returns home. Richard, 
unable to retake Jerusalem, in spite of wonders of bravery 
and daring, makes terms with Saladin (September 1192). 
Truce for three years, three months, three days, three 
hours ; recognition of coastal strip from Acre to Ascalon as 
crusading territory. Freedom of pilgrimage to holy places. 
Richard returns by the Adriatic and Vienna, where he is 
seized (December 1192), handed over to the Emperor, and 
held prisoner. 

The Austrian banner, it is said, perhaps with truth, had 
been trodden in the filth at Acre by Richard's order ; but 
his imprisonment by the Emperor is no doubt mainly due 

PERIOD XX : 1187-1215 129 

to Richard's alliance with the Guelfic party in Germany, 
and to the imperial ambitions (extension of suzerainty 
over England, &c). 

Henry, son of Frederick Barbarossa, left behind in Ger- 1190 
many as regent, succeeds as the Emperor Henry VI — 
a ruler of the highest gifts, whose early death (1197) changes 
the history of Europe. 

First legal recognition of the Communa or Corporation 1191 
of London (the twelfth century is an age of town growth 
in many parts of Europe — e. g. England, Germany, Flanders, 
Italy, France). 

Henry VI makes his first expedition to Italy, is crowned 1191 
emperor in Rome, but fails to take Naples. 

Fresh struggles of the imperial power in Germany with 1192-4 
Henry the Lion and the Guelfs, ended by a settlement 
which included (a) the release of Richard Cceur-de-Lion, 
after thirteen months' imprisonment, mainly in the Rhine- 
land (Trifels and Worms), on payment of a large ransom, 
the rendering of homage, and the promise of tribute to 
the Empire ; (6) a marriage alliance between the imperial 
house and that of Henry the Lion. 

Henry VI makes another expedition to Italy, conquers 1194 
the Two Sicilies, and re-establishes imperial authority, for 
the moment, over much of Central Italy. I 

Richard Cceur-de-Lion returns to England, suppresses 1194 ^ 
rebellion, and opens war with Philip of France. (r ju 

Great part of Chartres Cathedral, destroyed by fire, is 1194, 
rebuilt. [The work goes on through the first half of the &c. 
thirteenth century.] 

Battle of Alarcos [or Alarcon] in Central Spain (New 1195 
Castile). Apparently overwhelming, but really indecisive, 
victory of the Muhammadans, under the Almohade Caliph, 
Yakub Al Mansur. 

1765 K 


1196 Henry VI puts forward a plan for making the German 
kingdom an hereditary monarchy, and all its fiefs here- 
ditary. Successful opposition of the German nobles. 

1196 Death of Walter Map (Mapes), Archdeacon of Oxford, 
Anglo-Norman satirist (Golias). 

1197 Last expedition of Henry VI to Italy. His death (at 
age of thirty-two) interrupts gigantic schemes for extension 
of German imperial power. 

1197 Richard builds 'Chateau Gaillard ' ('Saucy Castle'), 
one of the most important and typical of mediaeval castles 
— near the frontier of Normandy, to command the Seine 
and guard against French attack. 

1198- Pontificate of Innocent III — the most powerful and 

1216 successful of all the Roman pontiffs in history. The 

influence of the Latin Church, in general, throughout 

Europe is now at its zenith, and remains so throughout 

the thirteenth century. 

1198 Death of ' Averroes ' (Ibn Rashid), most celebrated and 
important of Arabic philosophers, physicians, and men of 
science in Spain. Leading representative of the Muslim 
culture of the West, especially at Cordova. His Aris- 
totelian translations and commentaries (' Averroes, who 
the great comment made ' in Dante, Inferno, iv). 

1198- Civil war in Germany. On death of Henry VI, Philip 
1208 of Swabia, youngest son of Barbarossa, is elected by the 
Hohenstaufen party ; Otto IV of Brunswick, son of 
Henry the Lion, by the Guelf party supported by the 
Church. The latter is saved from complete defeat by the 
murder of Philip (1208). Otto generally recognized. 

1199 Death of Richard Cceur-de-Lion. Accession of John to 
the Anglo-Angevin Empire. Rival claims of his nephew 
Arthur, son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, brother of Henry II 
of England, who takes refuge at the French pourt. Truce 
between Philip Augustus and John. 


PERIOD XX : 1187-1215 131 

Castle of Vincennes, near Paris, begun c. 1164 by C. 1200 
Louis VII, is completed, in its earlier form, by Philip 
Augustus. No castle in Europe is more typical of the 
1 feudal age ' than the keep of Vincennes, 170 feet high, 
of extraordinary massiveness and strength. It was a 
favourite residence of French kings (e. g. Philip Augustus, 
Louis X, Charles IV, V, VI, and IX). The four last 
named, Henry V of England, and Cardinal Mazarin are 
among those who died here. From Louis XI it is one of 
the chief state prisons. It was also the birth-place of 
Charles V of France. 

Introduction of windmills into Europe from the Muham- Before 
madan East, one of the ' civilizing details ' of the Crusades. 1200 

Charter of Philip Augustus to the Schools of Paris. 1200 v' 

Completion of the main part of the present (Romanesque) c. 1200 
Cathedral of Worms. Some parts of this building go back 
to the eighth century. 

Great age of Icelandic literature, at this time, and during c. 1200 
all the later twelfth and earlier thirteenth centuries. Sagas 
(Heimskringla, or Sagas of the Norse kings, Burnt Njal, 
Eyrbyggia, Grettir the Strong, &c). 

Campo Santo at Pisa formed, for burial of leading c. 1200 
citizens ; earth brought from Jerusalem after Third Crusade. 

Great age of Troubadour poetry, especially in S. of France e. 1100- 
(Toulouse, Provence, &c), now and during most of twelfth 1200 
century. Bertrand de Born, Viscount of Hautefort, 1145- 
1210, is a leading representative of this literature, mainly 
concerned with love and war. These Icelandic sagas and 
Troubadour songs and poems, carried on by the Trouveres 
in N. France, and by the Minnesingers in Germany, are 
really the first important chapters of modern European 
literature. The Troubadours to some extent aid the free- 
thinking and anti-Church tendencies of the later twelfth 



1202 Philip of France summons John to appear before him 
as suzerain and explain his oppression of his subjects, 
especially the barons of Poitou. John refuses to appear, 
and war begins again. 

1202-2 Fourth Crusade, organized by Innocent III ; led by 
Baldwin, Count of Flanders, by Boniface, Marquis of 
Montferrat, by other northern barons, and later by Henry 
(Enrico) Dandolo, Doge of Venice. The original purpose 
was attack upon Egypt and deliverance of Holy Land 
thereby. But Venice, which furnishes fleet and transports 
for the northern crusaders, and joins in the Crusade, turns 
the expedition away from crusading purposes, and makes 
it the instrument of her aggrandizement. Zara in Dal- 
matia, a revolted vassal-city of Venice, is taken. Then the 
crusaders proceed to Constantinople, and restore the exiled 
Emperor Isaac Angelos, who is to act as their ally and 
agent (1203). A popular rising breaks out in the city, and 
Angelos is murdered. A nationalist emperor is set up. 
Constantinople is besieged and taken by the crusaders, 
with terrible destruction of historic buildings and works 
of art (1204). Widespread conflagration. 

The conquerors set up a Latin, or Frankish, Empire 
(which lasts till 1261) on the ruins of the East Roman or 
Byzantine. Baldwin of Flanders first Latin emperor. 

The Venetians secure a large share of the spoil — a ' quarter 
in Constantinople ; a dominant position in the trade of 
the Byzantine world, especially in the Aegaean Sea and 
Black Sea ; the island of Euboea or Negropont ; the 
Ionian Islands — Corfu, &c. ; the coast of Albania ; a 
great part of the Peloponnesos or Morea ; Crete, &c. 

Frankish principalities are set up in Thrace and Greece, 
vassals of the new Latin Empire of the East (' Dukes ' of 
Athens, Thebes, Achaia, &c). All Europe is lost to the 
Byzantines for a time. The Byzantine cause is main- 

PERIOD XX : 1187-1215 133 

tained in Asia by (a) the ' Greek Empire of Nicaea ' (Nikaia) ; 
(6) the ' Empire of Trebizond '. 

The Fourth Crusade marks the end of the Eastern Empire 
as a great Christian state. Though restored at Constanti- 
nople in 1261, and lasting till 1453, it is hopelessly decrepit. 
The crusaders of 1204 prepare for the Turks of the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. 4fW 

Arthur of Brittany, falling into the power of King John 1203 
of England, disappears. He is universally believed to 
have been murdered. Philip of France, as suzerain of the 
Angevins on the Continent, is expected to avenge Arthur's 
death. Philip invades Normandy. 

Philip overruns all Normandy, which is now quite dis- 1204 
loyal to the Anglo-Angevin connexion, and leans to France. 
Along with Normandy go Maine, Anjou, Poitou, and 
Touraine (and part of Aquitaine). The Angevin Empire is 
thus shattered. Of its vast continental dominions only 
part of Aquitaine remains to it. Thus also, territorially, 
the great French Monarchy is now founded by Philip 

Death of the ' Hebrew Abelard ', Moses ' Maimonides ', 1204 
great Jewish philosopher and theologian, at Cairo (born 
1135, at Cordova). 

Chingiz ('Jenghiz', 'Ghenghiz') Khan recognized as 1206 
supreme chief of the Mongol tribes. He begins the conquest 
of the outside world, and rapidly creates the largest Asiatic 
Empire ever known, and one of the most important in 

Stephen Langton, the future leader of the movement 1206-9 
for English liberty (Magna Carta), is chosen as Archbishop 
of Canterbury by Innocent III (1206), and duly elected, 
but refused admission to England by the king. Innocent 
lays England under Interdict (1208-13), and excommuni- 
cates John, who seizes Church property (1209). 


1208 Murder of Philip of Swabia. Momentary triumph of 
Otto IV and the Guelf party in Germany. 

1209 Albigensian crusade (1209-29) begun to check the spread 
of anti-Church tendencies and sects (Albigenses, Waldenses, 
Poor Men of Lyons, Cathari, &c.) in S. Europe, especially in 
S. France, Provence, Toulouse, &c. Albi, NE. of Toulouse, 
was a head centre of the twelfth -century ' Protestants ', 
among whom two elements must be recognized, (a) ' evan- 
gelical ', (6) ' free-thinking '. 

1210 St. Francis of Assisi with some difficulty gains the Papal 
sanction for his (Franciscan) Order of Mendicant Friars. 

1211 John still defying the Papacy, Innocent III threatens 
to depose him, calling on Philip Augustus of France to 
execute the sentence. Welsh attack on English. 

1212 Decisive battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra 
Morena in Spain. 

Spanish Islam has been repeatedly saved from complete 
ruin by Muhammadan aid from Africa (' Almoravides ' 
in eleventh century ; ' Almohades ' in twelfth ; see 1086, 
1160, 1195) ; once more she is hard pressed by the Chris- 
tian States at the opening of the thirteenth century, and 
again calls in African allies, but now without success. 
The Muslims are utterly defeated, and the Christian con- 
quest of Southern Spain begins. 

The Muhammadans had already lost nearly all the 
Castilian plateau, the heart of the peninsula, and the west 
coast down to Lisbon, and still farther south, but on the 
east they were still masters almost to the Ebro. 

1212 Otto IV having fallen out with Pope Innocent III, the 
latter, in alliance with the Ghibelline party, puts forward 
his ward, the young Hohenstaufen Frederick II, son of 
the Emperor Henry VI, as anti-emperor. 

1212 Foundation of the Cathedral of Rheims (present build- 

PERIOD XX: 1187-1215 135 

ing). The west facade is ' perhaps the most beautiful piece 
of building produced in the Middle Ages '. 

Fearing deposition, and planning a great campaign in 1213 
France for the recovery of the Angevin dominions, John 
of England yields to Innocent, receives and admits Langton 
as Archbishop of Canterbury, and becomes the Pope's 
vassal, resigning his kingdom to the Papacy, and receiv- 
ing it again as a tributary state, with a yearly payment 
of 1,000 marks. 

Suggested germ of the English Parliament in the repre- 1213 
sentative assemblies of 1213 (certain towns summoned to 
send deputies, in August, to St. Albans [?] ; the shires, in 
November, to Oxford [?]. 

John organizes a coalition against France by alliance 1213-14 
with the Emperor Otto IV and the Count of Flanders. 
The English barons at first refuse to follow John to France, 
but follow him to La Rochelle in 1214. 

But the main army of the coalition, under Otto IV, the 
Earl of Salisbury, and the Count of Flanders, is utterly 
defeated by Philip Augustus at Bouvines near Lille in 
Flanders, in a battle which secures all the French gains 
of 1204, and asserts French military eminence in Europe 
(July 27, 1214). Break-up of the coalition. ' Modern 
France springs from Bouvines.' 

Birth of Roger Bacon [see 1294]. 1214 

Otto IV, returning to Germany, practically abandons 1215 
the field to Frederick II, who is generally recognized as 
German King and Emperor (and King of the Two Sicilies), 
and crowned at Aachen. 

John, returning to England, is confronted by the uprising 1215 
of English liberty, championed by the Church and the 
baronage (' the Army of God and Holy Church '), and is 
forced to sign Magna Carta, ' the Great Charter ', at 
Runny mede on the Thames near Windsor (June 15, 1215). 



Innocent disallows the Great Charter, excommunicates 
John's opponents, suspends Langton. The English barons 
offer the crown to Louis, son of Philip Augustus. 

1215 Lateran Council at Rome under Innocent III. The chief 
measures : (a) the doctrine of Transubstantiation (change 
of substance or essence), in the Eucharist, decreed (applica- 
tion of the Aristotelian philosophy of substance and acci- 
dents to theological dogma). (6) Compulsory auricular 
confession laid down — at least once a year every Catholic 
layman is to confess to a priest, (c) Abolition of the trial 
by ordeal, (d) Full sanction of Franciscan and Dominican 
Orders of Mendicant Friars. / 

These new religious orders, instead of retiring from the 
world, aimed at Converting it, and became the greatest 
popular force and the ablest intellectual support of the 
Latin Church and its system. 

* Francis of Assisi was born 1182 ; died 1226 ; and was 
canonized 1228. 

A fit 
Companion over the high seas, to keep 
The bark of Peter to its proper bearings. 


Dominic of Calahorra in Spain was born about 1170 ; 
died 1221 ; and was canonized 1233. The latter, 

That athlete consecrate, 
Kind to his own and cruel to his foes, [Dante.] 

took a great part in suppressing, by his preaching, &c, 
the Albigensian revolt against the Church : also probably I 
some part in the first organization and administration of' 
the Inquisition, founded by Innocent III primarily to, 
stamp out the Albigensian and allied movements. 

C. 1215 Chingiz Khan and the Mongols conquer great part of 
N. China and take Peking. 







General Points 

1. Final struggle of Papacy and Empire. Defeat of the 
Empire. Fatal weakening of the German kingdom. 

2. Victory of the Church in its struggle with heresy. 

Immense power and prosperity of the Church all through 
this, the greatest mediaeval, century. 

3. Last age of the Palestine Crusades. Decay of crusad- 
ing spirit (for Syria). 

4. Progress of the French kingdom. Its gains from the 
Albigensian crusade. 

5. Progress of the Christian kingdoms in Spain. Spanish 
Islam confined to Granada. Christian reconquest of 
Cordova and Seville. 

6. German racial expansion eastwards (the Drang nach 
Osten). Conquest of Old Prussia. 

7. Progress of civilization. Gothic architecture at its 
height. Great age of mediaeval universities, of scholasti- 
cism, &c. 

8. Growth of the Mongol Empire, which now becomes 
the chief world-power. Mongol conquest of Central Asia, 
of North China, of Russia. Temporary overrunning of 
Poland, Hungary, &c. Commencement of diplomatic 
intercourse between Western Christendom and the Mongols 
(from 1245). 


c. 1215 About the beginning of the thirteenth century hot-air 
baths (imitated from Muhammadan) become customary 
in many European Christian towns. 

1216 A French army lands in England under the Dauphin 
Louis, ' to deliver the nation from John's tyranny '. 

1216 Death of Innocent III (July). Honorius III succeeds. 

1216 Death of King John of England (October), at war with 
the baronage, the Church, and most of the people. John's 
little son Henry (III of England) succeeds ; William 
Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, regent. England rallies to 
the new sovereign. Reissue of Magna Carta. 

1217 The French and their supporters in England defeated 
by land and sea (Lincoln, May ; Dover, August). Henry III 
is generally recognized, and Louis leaves. 

1219 Great Mongol attack on Central Asia and the West 
begins : (a) On Muhammadan Central Asia. Between 
1219 and 1225 Chingiz Khan conquers Bukhara, Samarkand, 
Khiva, Farghana, N. Afghanistan, N. and E. Persia, much 
of Caucasia, &c. (6) From Caucasia a Mongol army 
attacks the Russians about 1223. Great Mongol victory, 
near the Sea of Azov, on the river Kalka (May 31). But, 
for the moment, the attack is not pressed ; the Mongols 
retire beyond the Caucasus, to return in 1236. The 
death of Chingiz (1227), and the Chinese conquests 
of the next few years, call their attention away from 

1220 Coronation of Frederick II as emperor at Rome. He 
renews his vow of crusade (taken 1215). 

1220 Commencement of (the present) Salisbury Cathedral [see 
1260, 1350]. 

1220 Henry III of England begins the rebuilding of West- 
minster Abbey, destroying the Norman Church of Edward 
the Confessor. 

PERIOD XXI : 1215-50 139 

Cathedral of Amiens designed and commenced [see 1220 
1288]. &c. 

Birth of Bona ventura, schoolman and mystic [see 1274]. 1221 
Beginnings of the University of Padua. 1222 

Death of Philip Augustus of France [see 1204, 1214]. 1223 
Death of Gerald de Barri, ' Giraldus Cambrensis ' — 

Welsh-Norman churchman, statesman, and historian (Itine- 

rarium Cambriae). 

Frederick II, as King of the Two Sicilies, founds the 1224 
University of Naples. 

Practically all Aristotle is now accessible to W. Christen- c. 1225 
dom in Latin translations. 

The Order of Teutonic Knights—' the German order ', 1226 
founded 1190, during the Third Crusade and the siege of 
Acre, as a brotherhood for the care of the sick and wounded, 
made an order of religious knighthood 1198 — is commis- 
sioned by Frederick II, at the suggestion of the Grand- 
Master Hermann of Salza, and at the invitation of the 
Polish Duke Conrad of Mazovia, to conquer and ' convert ' 
the heathen Prussians. This difficult task is accomplished 
between 1230 and 1283 by long and bloody wars. In 1237 
the Teutonic order unites with the ' Brethren of the Sword ', 
who had conquered Livonia and founded Riga in 1201, &c. 

[Or perhaps 1224 or 1225] Birth of Thomas of Aquino c. 1227 
(' Aquinas '), chief of the Schoolmen [see 1274]. 

Death of Chingiz Khan, succeeded by Okkodai, ' the 1227 
conqueror of Russia, Poland, and Hungary '. 

Quarrel between the Papacy and the Emperor Fred- 
erick II (accused of postponing and evading the execution 
of his vow of crusade). Frederick excommunicated. 

Accession of Louis IX (' St. Louis ') of France, under 1228 
whom the French kingdom makes further progress, and 
becomes perhaps the most powerful of Christian states. 


1228-9 Fifth Crusade, led by Frederick II. Partial success. 
Jerusalem temporarily recovered, together with Nazareth 
and Sidon, by treaty with the Sultan of Egypt. Frederick 
crowns himself in the Holy City as king of the restored 
kingdom of Jerusalem. But all these hopes are soon 
disappointed. Jerusalem is finally lost 1244. . 

1229 End of the Albigensian crusade, mainly to the profit 
of the French kingdom, which now annexes the County of 
Toulouse, and becomes nearly as powerful in the south 
(towards the Mediterranean) as Philip Augustus had made 
her in the north (towards the Channel and the Ocean). 

1229 Christian conquest of the Balearics, by James ' the 
Conqueror ' of Aragon. 

1230 Peace between the Empire and the Papacy at San Ger- 

c. 1230 Appearance of the German legal code known as the 
Sachsenspiegel (' Saxon-Mirror ') ; followed, about 1276, 
by the Schwabenspiegel (' Swabian-Mirror '). 

1230 Final union of Leon and Castile under Ferdinand III 
('St. Ferdinand '), the conqueror of Andalusia. 

C 1231, The University of Cambridge clearly appears as an 
&c. organized body, under a chancellor. Great age of univer- 
sity progress at this time (Oxford ; Naples ; Padua ; Sala- 
manca ; College of the Sorbonne ; Lisbon or Coimbra, &c). 
See 1200, 1222, 1224, 1241, 1243, 1290. 

1231 Weakening of the central power in Germany through 
the concessions of Frederick II to lay and spiritual lords 
in the Reichstag at Worms (largely caused by the 
struggle of the Empire with the Church and the Lombard 

1232 Clock and orrery sent to Frederick II by the Sultan of 

PERIOD XXI : 1215-50 HI 

Fall of Hubert de Burgh, and practical end of the Grand 1232 
Justiciary in England. The Chancellor gradually succeeds 
the Justiciar as the practical First Minister of the State. 

Personal government of Henry III. Growth of the 
movement for the strengthening of English liberties, 
especially through the creation of a central representative 
assembly, or Parliament. 

Birth of Raymond Lull [see 1315]. 1234 

Imperial Reichstag at Mainz. First known publication 1235 
of a Law of the Empire in German. 

Death of Walther von der Vogelweide, chief of the early 1235 
German poets (Minnesingers), stanch defender of the 
imperial claims, and friend of the poor and oppressed 


Great Mongol-Tartar attack on Europe, led by Batu, 1236-43 
grandson of Chingiz Khan, and the brilliant strategist 
Subudai. Conquest, and temporary ruin, of all the Russian 
states, except Old Novgorod (near the Baltic), which 
submits to tribute. Defeat of the Poles and Hungarians. 
Terrible ravaging of Hungary. Permanent occupation of 
much of the present Russia-in-Europe (including the steppe 
lands of the south, and the middle and lower Volga) by the 
Mongols, who gradually fix their western capital at Sarai, 
a little north of Astrakhan. This Western Mongol sub- 
kingdom becomes known as Kipchah or the Golden Horde ; 
later it divides into the khanates of Astrakhan, Kazan, 
and Krim. 

Castilian conquest of Cordova, by St. Ferdinand [see 1236 

Victory of Frederick II over the Lombard cities at 1237 
Cortenuova. The Papacy accuses him of heresy. 

Union of the Teutonic Knights with the Knights of the 
Sword in one Teutonic Order, 


c. 1237- Earliest certain notices of Berlin in history [as one of 
1244 two little fishing villages and townships, Berlin and Coin]. 
Not till 1495 does Berlin become the capital of Branden- 
burg and the official residence of the Elector. 

1238 Aragonese conquest of Valencia (by James I 'the 
Conqueror '). 

1239 Frederick II excommunicated afresh by Pope Gregory IX. 

1240 Choir of old St. Paul's, London, rebuilt in Gothic style, 
and new tower commenced. 

1240 The Cathedral of Chartres completed (main part). 
The Baptistery of Pisa Cathedral completed. 

1240-1 The Mongols ravage Silesia, but are checked by a German 
army at Wahlstatt, near Liegnitz. They retire SE. and 
invade Hungary. 

C 1240- Completion of the main part of the Cathedral of Chartres. 


Alliance between the cities of Ltibeck and Hamburg, 

which grows into the Hanseatic League. 

1241 Beginnings of the University of Siena (charter from the 
Emperor Charles IV, 1357). 

1243 The University of Salamanca founded by Ferdinand III. 

1244 Pope Innocent IV (1243-4) flies before Frederick II 
out of Italy to Lyons. 

1245 Death of Alexander of Hales, ' the Irrefragable Doctor ', 
one of the leading English Schoolmen (? teacher of Bona- 
ventura). His chief works were written in Paris. 

1245 Council of Lyons. Excommunication of Frederick II 
renewed, and his deposition now declared. The German 
princes summoned to make a new election. 

1245 John de Piano Carpini sent as Papal Envoy to the 
Mongols, thus opening intercourse between Western 
Christendom and the Tartars. Carpini traverses Russia 

PERIOD XXI : 1215-50 143 

and Central Asia, and penetrates to the Great Khan's camp 
in Mongolia, south of Lake Baikal. 

Immense extension of the boundaries of European know- 
ledge. Discovery of inner Asia, almost to China. Carpini's 
contact with Chinese, in Mongolia. 

The twelfth-century translation of Euclid by Adelard 1246 
of Bath is edited by Campanus of Novara. From this 
came the first printed edition (of 1482). 

Anti-kings in Germany — Heinrich Raspe, Landgrave of 1246-56 
Thuringia, 1246-7 ; William of Holland, 1247-56— set up 
(mainly by the Church) against Frederick II and his 

Seville taken by St. Ferdinand of Castile [see 1236]. 1248 

Sixth Crusade, undertaken by St. Louis (Louis IX) of 1248-56 
France, who sails from Aigues-Mortes. Forming his base 
in Cyprus, he thence attacks the Muslim power in Egypt. 
Here he takes Damietta, but on the way to Cairo is defeated 
and taken prisoner with all his army (April 1250). Liberated 
on terms of surrendering Damietta and paying a ransom, 
Louis goes to Palestine, where he spends almost four years, 
fortifying Acre, Sidon, and other crusading strongholds 
on the coast. (His work at Sidon is still standing.) 

The still existing fortifications of Aigues-Mortes, one of the 1248,&C 
most interesting remains of the Middle Ages, commenced 
by St. Louis (?) ; mostly built under Philip III, 1270-85. 

Beginning of (the present Gothic) Choir of Cologne 1248 

Germ of University College, Oxford, in endowments by 1249 
William of Durham. 

Completion of Aragonese and Portuguese conquests from 1250 
the Muhammadans in Spain. These two states now attain 
their final extent in the Peninsula. Castile still lacks the 
SE. extremity, where the last stand of Islam is made in the 


kingdom of Granada (not absorbed till 1492, by Ferdinand 
and Isabella, of the United Spanish monarchy). 

1250 Death of Frederick II in Apulia. ' With Frederick fell 
the Empire. . . . From the ruin that overwhelmed the 
greatest of its houses (the Hohenstaufen), it emerged, 
living indeed . . . but so shattered, crippled, and degraded, 
that it could never be to Europe and to Germany what 
it once had been ' [Bryce]. 

C. 1250, Completion of the main part of Lincoln Cathedral, in 
&c. Gothic style. 

C. 1250 Berry Pomeroy Castle in Devon (oldest existing parts) ; 
Carisbrooke Castle in the Isle of Wight (most of the existing 
building outside the keep). 

Causes of the failure and wreck of the Empire and the 
German kingdom in the thirteenth century : 

(1) the imperfect unification, and strong disrupt ionist 
tendencies of Germany ; (and arising out of this) 

1 a. The ruinous concessions to the feudal lords. 

Behind all this, 

1 b. The elective character of the Crown and its want 
of identification with any particular leading tribe, race, \J 
or region, in Germany, is a primary source of weakness. 

2. The Italian connexion and the sacrifice of imperial fty 
and German interests to this ; (and arising out of this) 

2 a. The quarrel with the Italian Republics. 

3. The quarrel with the Papacy and the Ultramontane 
party throughout the Empire. 

C. 1250 Foundation of Stockholm. It does not, however, become 
the capital of Sweden till much later (fourteenth century). 
There is no fixed ' capital ' in this country in earlier 



General Points 

1. Paralysis of the German kingdom and Western 
Empire (ruined by its struggle with the Papacy). The 
Great Interregnum in Germany. Widespread anarchy. 

2. Beginnings of the Hanseatic League of commercial 
cities (in reaction from anarchy). 

3. Continued development of German racial expansion 
eastwards (in Baltic coast-lands). 

4. End of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Restora- 
tion of the Eastern Empire in Byzantine form. Feeble 
old age of the restored Empire. 

5. Depression of Venice and rise of Genoa in the Levant, 
&c, consequent upon (4). The great age of Genoa now 

6. Cessation of the Syrian Crusades, the last two being 
directed against Muhammadan Africa. 

7. Progress of the French kingdom continued. 

8. Development of English liberties. The English 
Parliament begins to take complete form, as a national 
representative assembly. 

9. Similar development of liberties in Spanish Christian 
states [Castile, Aragon, &c.]. 

10. Progress of Mongol power and conquests [e.g. in 

X765 r. 


China, Persia]. Further development of intercourse between 
Mongols and W. Christendom. 

10 a. End of the Eastern [Baghdad] Caliphate, destroyed 
by Mongols. 

11. Progress of civilization. Zenith of Gothic archi- 
tecture and of scholasticism. Development of city life. 
Advances in science, literature, and art. The Church still 
at the height of its influence, dominating European civiliza- 

PERIOD XXII : 1250-70 147 

Conrad IV, son and successor of Frederick II, wastes 1250-4 
his strength in Italy, captures Naples, dies of fever. All 
this time the anti-king, William of Holland, is active in 

The Alfonsine Tables compiled under patronage of 1252 
Alphonso X, '' the Learned ', of Castile and Leon. Advance 
in mediaeval astronomy. 

Louis IX sends the Franciscan William of Rubrouck 1253-5 
(Rubruquis), a French Fleming, as his envoy to the Mongols. 
Rubrouck, like Carpini, goes to the Great Khan's camp 
in Mongolia (now at Karakorum). 

Both these Friar travellers, the first discoverers of the 
bulk of Asia for Europe, leave valuable accounts of their 
missions, and of the state of the Mongol world at that 

Rubrouck declares the inland character of the Caspian, 
which is recognized from this time. 

Death of Conrad IV of Germany. 1254 

Death of William of Holland. 1256 

The Great Interregnum in Germany. Ruin of the unity 1256-73 
and strength of the German kingdom as a whole. 

' Every floodgate of anarchy was opened : prelates and 
barons extended their domains by war ; robber-knights 
infested highways and rivers ; the misery of the weak, the 
tyranny of the strong, were such as had not been seen for 
centuries. . . . Only in the cities (and the Alps) was shelter 
or peace to be found ' [Bryce]. 

This is the time of the early growth of the Hansa or 
Hanseatic League. Also of the early importance of the 
legal codes of the Sachsenspiegel and the Schwabenspiegel 
(see above), and of the secret tribunals of the Fem-(Vehm-)- 
gerichte, especially in Westphalia. 

(There is no real and complete restoration of the German 
nation and kingdom till the nineteenth century, through 




the work of Bismarck and others, under William I of 

Now, after the Interregnum, there is a notable increase 
of the power of the feudal lords, great and small, and in the 
importance of the cities. Certain outlying districts, e.g. 
the Swiss mountains, where the old local freedom has 
always been strong, refuse to submit to the encroachments 
of lords, and gradually achieve complete independence. 
1 The German kingdom broke down beneath the weight 
j of the . . . Empire ' [Bryce]. 

1244-58 Growing opposition to the misrule of Henry III in 
England (led from 1257 by Simon de Montfort, Earl of 
Leicester), culminates in the Parliament and Provisions of 
Oxford (1258). By the Oxford Provisions the Govern- 
ment is practically put ' in commission ', under baronial 
control, being entrusted to temporary or standing com- 
mittees. The chief of these is the Council of Fifteen, 
permanent advisers of the Crown, chosen partly by repre- 
sentatives of the king and his party, partly by representa- 
tives of the opposition. The monarchy thus becomes 
strictly ' constitutional ' and ' limited ', but much of its 
power is soon restored (from 1265). 

1260 Completion of Salisbury Cathedral, except the spire 
[see 1220, 1350]. 

1260-70 First journey of the two elder Polos (Nicolo and Maffeo, 
Venetian merchants) in the Mongol world — to Russia, 
Central Asia, and China. They reach the court of Kublai 
Khan at Peking, and begin the European discovery of 
the Far East. 

1261 ' Restoration ' of the Byzantine Empire by Michael 
Palaiologos (from Nicaea). 

1263 Civil war in England, resulting from Henry's struggles 
against the Provisions of Oxford. 

PERIOD XXII : 1250-70 149 

Balliol College, Oxford, begun by John Balliol, of 1263-8 
Barnard Castle, Durham, and Dervorguilla, parents of 
John Balliol, King of Scotland. 

Death of Vincent of Beauvais [b. 1190 ?], one of the c. 1264 
chief encyclopaedists of the Middle Ages, author of vast 
collections of material for theology, history, and the study 
of nature — the Speculum Doctrinale, Spec. Historiale, and 
Spec. Naturale — summaries of the knowledge of the 
thirteenth century. 

Louis IX of France annuls the Provisions of Oxford by 1264 
the Mise of Amiens. Henry III defeated at Lewes by 
Simon de Montfort and the constitutional party. 

' Simon de Montfort' s Parliament \ a ' party assembly ', 1265 
but the first in which the full English national representa- 
tion was realized, and where town members, county 
members, clergy, and baronage met (January 1265). See 
1275, 1295. 

Fresh outbreak of the Civil War. Prince Edward (after- 
wards Edward I) escapes and leads the king's party. 
Simon de Montfort defeated and killed in the battle of 
Evesham (August 4). 

Birth of Duns Scotus, the Schoolman [see 1308]. ? 1265 

The Dictum de Kenilworth nominally restores the power of 1266 
the monarchy, and annuls the Provisions of Oxford, but 
Prince Edward now really directs the government ; royal 
misgovernment is ended or at least checked ; and the 
Crown itself fosters the growth of Parliament. 

Fall of the Hohenstaufen in S. Italy. The ' kingdom 1266-8 
of the Two Sicilies ' granted by the Pope to Charles of 
Anjou, brother of St. Louis of France, who conquers it 
and kills Manfred, the son, and Conradin, the grandson, 
of Frederick II. 

'The Norman kings (of S. Italy) were more terrible in 
their death than in their life : they had sometimes baffled 


the Teutonic Emperor : their heritage destroyed him. . . . 
In the last act of the tragedy were joined the enemy who 
had now blighted the strength of the Empire (the Papacy), 
and the rival destined to insult its weakness and blot out 
its name ' (France) [Bryce]. 
1268 Final loss of Antioch by the Crusaders. 

1268 Return of the elder Polos from their first journey to the 
East. They bring back the earliest first-hand European 
knowledge of China, and strong encouragement to develop 
intercourse with the Tartar world (e.g. an invitation, from 
Kublai to the Pope, to send Christian teachers to the 

1268 Roger Bacon, at the invitation of Pope Clement IV, 
issues his Opus Mains, Opus Minus, and Opus Tertium, 
the chief mediaeval anticipation of modern natural science 
and ' inductive philosophy ', ' the Encyclopaedia and 
Organon of the thirteenth century ' [Whewell]. 

1270 Seventh and last of 'the Crusades,' led by Louis IX of 
France, joined by Prince Edward of England. 

Louis endeavours this time to attack the Muslim power 
first in the West, and besieges Tunis, before which he 

Prince Edward goes to Syria, but effects nothing. 

Before The Castle of Angers, as now existing, completed by 
1270 L ou i s IX (' still one of the most imposing ' mediaeval 
fortresses ' in existence, although several of its towers 
have been razed ', and its vast moat filled up). 

Before Completion of the fortifications of Carcassonne, a double 
1270 line f ramparts and towers, one of the best illustrations 
in any country of a mediaeval fortified city. 

(Aiques Mortes fortifications in the next few years.) 



General Points 

1. The last age of the Hildebrandine Papacy and its fall. 

2. Appearance of the principle of nationality as a leading 
force in European politics. 

3. Strength of the French kingdom, now (under Philip 

the Fair) the most powerful state in Christendom. 

4. Strength of the English kingdom. Struggle for an 
empire of the British Isles. 

5. Beginnings of the Swiss Confederation. 

t>. Close of the Interregnum in Germany. Partial 
restoration of national prosperity and political life. 

7. Progress of German trade and expansion (Hansa and 
Teutonic Order). 

8. Disappearance of the last fragments of Crusading 
dominion in Syria. 

9. Development of the European expansion. Complete 
discovery (for Europe) of China and the whole Mongol 
Empire, of great part of the Indies, &c. Beginnings of 
exploration and colonization in the Atlantic. First attempt 
to tind the ocean way round Africa to India. 

10. Developments of Civilization. Mediaeval Thought 
and Art (Scholasticism. Architecture, fto.) continue in 
their most brilliant phase?. 

Beginnings of the Higher Mediaeval Literature. 


c. 1270 About this time the great 'Mongol trade-routes' — {a) 
from the Black Sea, (6) from the Mediterranean; to NW. 
Persia ; (c) from NW. Persia to the Indian Ocean and the 
mouth of the Persian Gulf ; (d) from NW. Persia to 
Central Asia ; (e) from the Black Sea and the Azov to 
Central Asia and China — begin to be used by Europeai 
merchants, missionaries, diplomatists, adventurers, 
Along these lines the 'overland expansion' of Europe 
Asiatic fields is mainly carried on during the Mongol A^ 
(to c. 1370). 

From West Central Asia to China three main routes are 
followed : (i) north of the Thian Shan range ; (ii) south 
of the Thian Shan ; (iii) north of the Kuen Lun range. 
All these three united at the W. end of the Great Wall 
of China and followed the line of that rampart to the 

!. 1270- Earlier buildings of the Moorish palace -fortress of the 
1273 Alhambra (Al Hamra, ' the Red ') completed in Granada 
[see 1390]. Completion of the main part of Amiens 

1271 Pope Gregory X (1271-6), ' the noblest spirit and the 
truest Christian among the Hildebrandine popes ', com- 
missions the Polos, with others, as envoys of Christendom 
in a second journey to Asia, the Far East, and the Mongol 
courts (1271-95). Young Marco Polo (now 17), son of 
Nicolo, accompanies his relatives, and becomes thedescriber 
of the lands visited by the Polos (in the Book of Marco 

Before Buildings of Henry III of England at Windsor Castle 

1272 (the great Round Tower reconstructed by Edward III, the 
great hall, kitchen, chapel, &c). 

1272 Death of Henry III and accession of Edward I of Eng- 
land (' the English Justinian '). 

PERIOD XXIII : 1270-1303 153 

The Chancellor, from about this time, becomes the chief c. 1273 
Minister of the English State (and so remains till about 
1558 and the accession of Elizabeth). 

Close of the Great Interregnum in Germany, by the election 1273 
of Rudolf of Hapsburg (i.e. Habsburg in the Aargau, near • 
Brugg), a chief lord and landowner in ' Switzerland ■ 
proper, landgrave in Alsace. This election is largely 
brought about by the efforts of Pope Gregory X, seconded 
by the Burggrave of Nuremberg, Frederick III of Hohen- 
zollern. [Here begins the connexion with the imperial 
throne of that family which at last secured the hereditary 
possession of the same.] 

The (present) Cathedral of Upsala commenced [see c. 1273 

Second Council of Lyons. Nominal (and momentary) 1274 
reunion of the Greek and Latin Churches (by submission 
of the former to the Pope). Efforts to organize a fresh 
Palestine Crusade. 

Complete foundation of Merton College at Oxford, 'in 1274 
the true sense of the word, the oldest surviving college in 
England ' (1264 at Maldon, Surrey). The library, of the 
later fourteenth century, is the oldest library-building in 

Death of Thomas Aquinas (Thomas ' of Aquino ', in the 1274 
territory of Naples), greatest of the schoolmen, author of 
the Summa Theologiae [see 1227]. 

English 'shire-knights', citizens, and burgesses meet in 1275 
the Easter Parliament of this year, which thus carries on 
the tradition of 1265, and to a large extent anticipates 
1295 [see 1265, 1295]. 

The Polos arrive at the court of Kublai Khan, Mongol- 1275 
Chinese Emperor (at Peking). 

Genoese attempt (finally unsuccessful) to conquer and c. 1275 


colonize in the Northern Canaries. This forms a new 
starting-point for modern colonial history, as well as for 
modern European knowledge of the Atlantic. 

C. 1276 Vienna becomes a possession of the Hapsburgs. 

1276 Death of Pope Gregory X, under whom the ' Hildebran- 
dine Papacy ' achieves its last conspicuous successes. 

1277 The English conquest of Wales almost completed (the 
Snowdon region and Anglesea alone left). 

1278 Death of Nicolo Pisano, architect and sculptor. 

1278 Rudolf of Hapsburg defeats Ottokar II of Bohemia and 
crushes his attempt to build up a great Bohemian state. 
By this victory — finally secured by the battle of the 
Marchfeld, close to Vienna — Rudolf founds the great 
Austrian state instead (nucleus of this in Duchy of Austria, 
Styria, Carinthia, Carniola). 

1279 Statute of Mortmain (' Dead Hand ') in England — to 
check the bestowal of estates on religious foundations — 
forecasts the beginning of an ebb in monastic enthusiasm. 

1280 Death of Albertus Magnus, Count of Bollstadt, Bishop 
of Ratisbon, greatest of German Schoolmen (' Doctor 
Universalis '), also an architect and a pioneer of natural 
science. He is supreme in the thirteenth century as an 
interpreter of Aristotle : in this he was largely guided 
by the translations and notes of the Arabic commentators. 
His (?) plans for the completion of Cologne Cathedral have 
been carried out in the nineteenth century. His position 
in chemistry and physical geography is noteworthy. 

1280-90 Completion of the main part of Strassburg Cathedral 
(facade by Erwin von Steinbach). 
1280 Completion of the ' Angel Choir ', Lincoln Cathedral. 

1280 Commencement of the present Cathedral of Orvieto — 
one of the finest Gothic monuments of Italy. 

PERIOD XXIII : 1270-1303 155 

Sicilian Vespers. Revolt of Sicily against French rule 1282 
(Charles of Anjou, King of the Two Sicilies). All French 
in the island slaughtered at and after vesper-time on 
Easter Monday, 1282. Sicily joins Aragon. 

Completion of English conquest of Wales. 1282-4 

Conquest of Old Prussia by the Teutonic Order practically 1283 

Commencement (by Edward I of England) of Carnarvon 1283 
Castle, ' one of the most extensive and imposing of the 
mediaeval fortresses of Europe '. 

The General Privilege of Aragon granted. [' The Magna 1283 
Carta of Aragon, and perhaps more full and satisfactory 
than our own.' — Hallam.] 

Conway Castle (' perhaps the most beautiful in Wales ') 1284 
built by Edward I. 

Philip IV (' Le Bel ', ' The Fair ') of France. French 1285- 
ascendancy still further advanced by this subtle states- 1314 
man, who humbles the Papacy [1303], calls the first National / 
Assembly of France [1302], destroys the Templars [1307- 
12], begins the aggrandizement of France in Burgundy 
[1310, &c], nearly absorbs French Flanders and the 
remainder of the King of England's continental dominion. 

Completion of the Cathedral of Amiens. 1288 

Public clock at Westminster. 1288 

The county of Burgundy ( ' Frei-Graf schaf t ', Tranche- 1289 
Comte ') united for a time with the German kingdom. 
Provence and Avignon remain in the possession of Charles 
of Anjou. 

Expulsion of the Jews from England by Edward I. 1290 
(They are not officially readmitted till Cromwell.) 

University of Lisbon. 1290 

Edward I of England presses Scotland to a political 1290-5 
union with England. 


1291 First (unsuccessful) attempt (by the Genoese) to find 
the sea-way round Africa to India. Discovery of a small 
part of the unknown W. coast of Africa (opposite the 
Canaries). This anticipates the great maritime expansion 
(the Oceanic Age) of Europe : progress is very slow till 
the fifteenth century. 

1291 Fall of Acre. Destruction of the last remains of the 
Crusading States in Syria. 

1291 First Roman Catholic Missions in India, founded by the 
Franciscan John of Monte Corvino, on his way to China 
and the court of the GrandKhan (Mongol-Chinese Emperor). 

1291 League of the Forest Cantons (Uri, Schweiz, Unter- 
walden), the nucleus of the Swiss Confederation. 

1293 First Roman Catholic Missions in China, founded by 
Monte Corvino, first Roman Bishop of Peking. 

1294 Death of Roger Bacon, ' Doctor Mirabilis ', the greatest 
Christian ' man of science ' before the fifteenth century. 
(In his later years he describes the composition of a tele- 
scope, lenses, an air-pump, gunpowder, &c.) His work 
in optics, mathematics, geography, philology, grammar, 
criticism, &c. 

1294 First alliance of Scotland with France against England. 
1294 Lubeck recognized as head of the Hanseatic League. 

1294 Election of Pope Boniface VIII. Guided by his extra- 
vagant and unskilful statesmanship, the Papacy comes 
into fatal conflict with the growing force of nationality, 
especially as represented by France and England. 

1295 The (present) Belfry of Bruges commenced. 

1295 Marco Polo and his relatives return to Venice from 
China (where they had resided from 1275 to 1292 in the 
service of Kublai Khan). 

1295 Complete National Representative Assembly in England— 
* the Model Parliament ■ of Edward I. Representation of 

PERIOD XXIII : 1270-1303 157 

counties, towns, and lower clergy, united with nobles and 

prelates. ' That which touches all shall be approved by 

all.' See 1265, 1275. 


Work on the Town Hall of Siena. & c# 

The first English conquest of Scotland. An English 1295-6 
viceroy appointed — John, Earl of Warenne, 'guardian of 
the Kingdom '. 

Boniface VIII (1294-1303) opens the last great struggle 1296 
of the Hildebrandine Papacy with Secular Powers by the 

Bull Clericis Laicos, forbidding the clergy, and 'religious 
persons ' of all ranks, to pay taxes to the civil power, 
without papal permission. Firm action of the French and 
English Governments in reply to this (e.g. the English 
clergy, refusing to grant supplies, in obedience to the Bull, 
are outlawed). 

Scottish rising under William Wallace. Victories over 1297 
the English. 

The Confirmation of the Charters in England — forced from 
Edward I by his war with France, the Scottish rising, and 
the rebellious attitude of the clergy and certain great 
nobles (e.g. Bohun of Hereford and Bigod of Norfolk). 

Commencement of the present (Gothic) Cathedral of 1298 

Marco Polo, in prison at Genoa, writes his book, Con- 1298 
cerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East. 

Second English conquest of Scotland. Defeat of Wallace 1298 
at Falkirk. 

Boniface VIII attempts to mediate between France and 1298 

Boniface VIII claims Papal overlordship in Scotland. 1299 
Treaty of Chartres between France and England : 
Guienne left in possession of the latter. (Philip is 


especially anxious to have his hands free for dealing with 
the Papacy and with Flanders : Edward for defence 
against Church encroachments and for completion of the 
Scottish conquest.) 
1300 Papal Jubilee at Rome. Its extraordinary, brilliancy 
(Dante, Giotto, and Villani of Florence are among the 
visitors to Rome at this time). ' Villani, who was present, 
says there were always 200,000 strangers in the city 
during the Jubilee ; another chronicler tells us that it 
seemed as if an army were marching each way at all hours 
. . . while Dante draws a simile from the multitudes who 
passed to and from St. Peter's along the bridge of St. 
Angelo : 

Even as the Romans, for the mighty host, 

The year of Jubilee, upon the bridge, 

Have chosen a mode to pass the people over. . . . 

Offerings were heaped up on the altars. A chronicler tells 
us that at St. Paul's (" outside the walls ") he saw two of 
the clergy with rakes, employed day and night in " raking 
together infinite money ".' Boniface, intoxicated with 
the spectacle, renews the struggle with the Secular Powers. 
(His alleged claims to be 'emperor as well as pope'.) 
■ The pope was now at the height of his fortune ; while the 
enthusiasm of the Jubilee filled his Treasury, the venera- 
tion of the multitudes ' hailed him as uniting the highest 
spiritual ' and temporal dominion '. 

1300 Growth of the glass-making industry at Venice, and 
concentration of the manufacture at Murano. The use of 
glass, both for vessels and windows, by this time is already 
very general throughout the leading countries of W. Europe. 

1300, Progress of paper-making, especially in Italy. 

iw\(\ ^ e Italian physician Lanfranchi of Milan writes his 
Chirurgia at Paris, an important era in the history of 

PERIOD XXIII : 1270-1303 159 

Death of Cimabue of Florence, the first great modern 1300 
painter (born c. 1240). 

[At this time the murder of an Irishman is regarded as [<>. 1300 
no offence in the King of England's courts.] 

The English king, nobles, and university representatives 1301 
repudiate the Pope's claim over Scotland (deduced from 
the Donation of Constantine, or from ' the Princess Scota, 
daughter of King Pharaoh of Egypt '. The English, of 
course, rely on ' Brute the Trojan '). 

Resumption of the Papal quarrel with Philip the Fair. 1301 
A new Papal legate of the most provocative type sent into 
France, Bernard, Bishop of Pamiers. Though a French 
subject, he declares to Philip himself that he acknowledges 
no lord but the Pope. Peter Flotte, the French Chancellor, 
sent to Rome to indict the legate ; Boniface's claims to 
[supreme] temporal as well as spiritual power ; Flotte 's / 
reply, ' Your power is in words ; ours is real '. 

The Four Letters (Ausculta, Fili, Salvator Mundi, &c.) 
issued by Boniface to assert Papal authority over the king, 
realm, and Church of France. Prelates and other represen- 
tatives of the French clergy summoned to a council at 
Rome for the redress of the grievances of the French 
Church — ' a daring and unprecedented assumption of power 
over a prince's ecclesiastical subjects '. 

Philip defies the Pope, burns Ausculta, Fili, and summons 1302 
the First National Representative Assembly of France 
(April 1302). The nobles, commons, and even clergy 
support the king. The French clergy remonstrate with 
the Pope. 

Violent reply of Boniface ( Verba delirantis) to the French 1302 

He threatens, in full Consistory, to depose Philip, if 
contumacious, ' like a groom \ 

Defeat of the French by the Flemings at Courtrai 1302 


(' Battle of the Spurs '). Philip abandons for the moment 
his attempt to absorb French Flanders. 

Forty-five French prelates, defying the king's authority, 
set out for the Roman Council [see 1301]. 
1302 Dante banished from Florence. 

1302 At the Roman Council Boniface VIII issues the ' Con- 
stitution ' Unam Sanctam, the last important document of 
the Hildebrandine Papacy, asserting its supremacy over all 
temporal authority. (' I have set thee over the nations 
... to root out, and to pull down, and to destroy ... to 
build and to plant.' ' It is altogether necessary for every 
human creature to be subject to the Roman Pontiff.') 

Philip makes peace with England and the Flemings, 
abandons the Scottish alliance, restores part of Aquitaine 
to Edward I. 
c. 1302 Commencement of (existing) fortifications of the Kremlin 
of Old Novgorod, at this time the leading Russian city 
and one of the largest in Europe. 

1303 Philip accuses Boniface of heresy, simony, and other 
crimes, and calls for his trial before a general council 

Excommunication of Philip [April]. 

Philip denounces the Inquisition as inhuman, and offers 
redress of grievances to every class of his subjects. 

The French National Assembly, or ' States General ', 
summoned again to Paris, supports the king, formulates 
terrible charges against the Pope, and calls for a general 
council — the French clergy concurring [June]. 

Boniface suspends all ecclesiastical elections and univer- 
sity teaching in France [August] and prepares a Bull of 
Deposition against Philip, to be published on September 8. 

Meantime, on September 7, the Pope is seized at Anagni, 
in the Sabine hills, by emissaries and allies of Philip, and 
roughly treated. He is rescued and brought to Rome, 

PERIOD XXIII : 1270-1303 161 

but dies from the effects of the shock and the ' frenzy 
fever ' that followed (October 11). 

[I see the Fleur-de-Lys Alagna enter, 

And Christ in his own Vicar captive made ; 

I see him yet another time derided ; 

I see renewed the vinegar and gall, 

And between robbers new I see him slain. 

Dante, Purgatorio, xx.] 

With Boniface VIII ends the great age of the Mediaeval 

[' After his failure it never recovered the ascendancy 
which he . . . hazarded in the endeavour to gain a yet 
more absolute dominion.' — Robertson.] 



ABOUT 1303 

Decisive changes have occurred since the end of the 
tenth century (see General View . . . about 1000). 

1. Mediaeval civilization has reached its height. The 
power and influence of the Church have long been at their 
height, and all that side of civilization favoured by the 
Church has brilliantly developed. 

The early movements of the New Free Thought (especially 
in the twelfth century) have been balanced and checked 
by the progress of Catholic thought. The thirteenth century 
is the noon-time of scholastic, or Catholic, philosophy, the 
age of the greatest Catholic thinkers (such as Aquinas). It 
also witnesses the fullest development of the monastic spirit 
in the Friars, who depart from the strictly monastic life, 
evangelize the masses afresh, and rally the spiritual and 
intellectual energies of Catholicism — in this last point 
their work resembles that of the Jesuits in the sixteenth 
century. The Mediaeval Universities have arisen, multi- 
plied, and prospered remarkably. The Organization, 
Defence, and Doctrine of the Church have been highly, 
perhaps injuriously developed (as in the thirteenth-century 
Papacy ; in the Inquisition ; in the enforcement of Auri- 
cular Confession ; and in Transubstantiation). 

Almost all the intellectual activities of the West, even 
those concerned with natural science, after showing 
abundant signs of revolt in the twelfth, have fallen more 
completely under Church influence in the thirteenth 
century. The Church now adopts Aristotle in full, and is 
reconciled to such discoveries as that of the magnet in 

The new literatures of the West, which begin to show 
themselves from the eleventh century, are no exception 


here. The anti-Church spirit of the Troubadours is toned 
down. This period closes with Dante, the supreme- literary 
artist of Catholicism and of the Imperial Idea. The 
ecclesiastical arts, and especially the architecture, of the 
Middle Ages are in their perfection from the early eleventh 

The whole of the material civilization of Christendom 
has likewise developed remarkably in this central mediaeval 
time (1000-1300). The Commercial Republics of Italy, 
Flanders, Germany, and other lands are in the heyday 
of their vigour, prosperity, and influence at the end of 
the thirteenth century ; while the European overland 
expansion in Asia, developed by the stimulus, or with the 
alliance, of the Mongol power, brings about a memorable 
enlargement of our world-knowledge, of European trade, 
and of Christian missionary activity. These developments 
are at the root of the oceanic discoveries of later times. 

After the crisis of 1303, mediaeval civilization tends to 
decline — Summer passes into Autumn — while a fresh life 
grows up (that of the Classical Renaissance and the New 
Nationalities) largely hostile to the mediaeval spirit. 

2. The Roman Papacy, that supreme expression of the 
mediaeval spirit, shares, of course, to the full in the develop- 
ment of mediaeval life which it has so largely helped to 
produce. During most of this period (1000-1300) it has 
really dominated Western Christendom. It has defeated 
the Western Empire after a long and desperate struggle 
(1076-1250). But now it has itself suffered a decisive 
defeat in its conflict with a new force of Nationality (1303). 
This event is the turning-point of the Middle Ages — from 
mediaeval to modern. 

3. Both Eastern and Western Empires have passed their 
zenith, and disastrously declined. The Eastern Empire is 
no longer a first-class power, or an effective bulwark of 



Christendom. This is partly the work of Western Crusaders, 
traitors to Christian interests. The German kingdom, on 
which the Western Empire rests, is fatally weakened as 
a unified state, the leader of Christian nations. But the 
German people, in trade and national expansion, as well 
as in culture and national civilization, continues to show 
remarkable vigour. The Hanseatic League and the Teutonic 
Order are examples of this. 

France begins to take the place of Germany as the lead- 
ing state of Europe. The French kingdom as a first-class 
power is not created till the thirteenth century, when the 
German kingdom is shattered. But its growth is rapid, 
and by 1303 it is already near to its commanding position 
in the seventeenth century. The next age — the mid-four- 
teenth century — sees a check to this advance, especially 
through the Hundred Years' War. 

England has lost the best part of the Anglo-Angevin 
Empire on the Continent (to the French kingdom), but has 
developed strongly as an island state, has made progress 
towards an Empire of the British Isles, and has worked out 
a system of Central and Local Government and Justice, 
which is the chief ancestor of Modern Liberal Constitu- 

Spain has driven the Muhammadan into a corner (the 
kingdom of Granada). Her three chief states, Castile, 
Aragon, and Portugal, have taken shape, and like England 
have ' organized their liberties '. Aragon begins expan- 
sion outside Spain (towards Italy) : the other states will 

In Italy the Commercial Republics are at the height of 
their prosperity and freedom. They have thriven on the 
Crusades, have shaken themselves free from the domina- 
tion of either Empire, and have not yet fallen under their 
own despots. 

Their progress is in many ways imitated, from an early 


time in the thirteenth century, by the trading cities of the 
North, especially in Flanders and Germany. 

Hungary, Poland, the Scandinavian States, have all 
become settled members of the European and Catholic 
family, and have maintained a fairly prosperous national 
life. The Scandinavians from the eleventh century have 
gradually lost their ubiquitous expansive energy. Hun- 
gary and Poland have both been limited by the German 
kingdom and the Russian states from a wider growth (till 
the middle of the thirteenth century). 

Russia has enjoyed its highest mediaeval prosperity and 
strength (in the tenth and eleventh centuries). Its states 
tend to form an ever-looser federation, and fall a prey to 
the Mongols in the thirteenth century. The old free Russia 
is almost destroyed, except at Novgorod in the far North. 
Asiatic Barbarians rule for centuries over the Eastern 
out-settlements of Europe and Christendom. 

The world-empire of these Asiatic Barbarians, the Mongol 
Tartars (comprising most of Asia and much of Eastern 
(Russian) Europe), is in many ways the most remarkable 
political fact at the end of this period. In the thirteenth 
century it opens most of Asia to European knowledge, 
trade, and missions. 





WAR, 1303-38 

General Points 

1. The Papacy falls under French control, and goes into 
' captivity ' at Avignon. Degradation of the Roman See. 
Permanent weakening of its authority. This is the first 
great proof of the passing away of mediaeval conditions 
and the mediaeval spirit. 

2. Suppression of the Templars — another evidence of 
the decline of mediaeval ideas. 

3. Strength of the French kingdom : its victories over 
the Papacy and the Templars; its aggressions on the 
Empire [Burgundy], on England [possessions in France], 
on Flanders. 

4. Failure of the English attempt at a complete empire 
of the British Isles. Defeat in Scottish war. Revival of 
English claims of continental empire. 

5. The Swiss Confederation begins to take shape more 

6. Continuance of the Mongol Empire. Increased inter- 
course with Christendom. European penetration of Asia, 
under Mongol protection (especially for trade and mission- 

7. Progress of European civilization. Science, litera- 
ture, art (architecture, painting, &c). Dante, Giotto, &c. 
Earliest scientific maps. Later Gothic style. 

PERIOD XXIV : 1303-38 167 

Benedict XI, successor to Boniface VIII, releases Philip 1303 
of France from excommunication, and annuls all anti- 
French decrees, sentences, and acts of Boniface {Clericis 
Laicos ' explained '). But Philip still presses for the con- 
demnation of Boniface VIII as a heretic and criminal. 

Fresh rising of the Scots and renewed English invasion, 1303 
Edward overruns all Scotland. Wallace captured (executed 

Completion of the Cloth Hall at Ypres (begun 1200), 1304 
■ the most considerable monument of oid Flemish trade in 
existence '. 

Birth of Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca). 1304 

University of Orleans (really dating from 1230 to 1250, 1305 
and, in the form of ' Schools', especially of classical learn- 
ing, reaching back to the earlier Middle Ages) extended 
and incorporated by Pope Clement V. It becomes one of 
the chief legal Schools of Europe. 

University of Lisbon moved to Coimbra, its permanent 1305 

The Archbishop of Bordeaux, elected Pope as Clement V, 1305 
comes to terms with Philip, and moves the seat of the 
Papacy to France or the Franco-Burgundian border, being 
crowned at Lyons, residing for the next four years in various 
parts of France, and finally settling at Avignon (1309), 
close to, but just beyond, the frontier of the French king- 
dom. The Papacy now becomes thoroughly French for 
the next seventy years, the period of the ' Babylonish 
Captivity ', 1305-76/7. During this time it is, in great 
measure, an instrument of the French Crown. 

Robert Bruce murders ' the Red Comyn ', and leads 1306 
a fresh Scottish rising against English rule. He is crowned 
at Scone. Fresh English invasion of Scotland. Bruce 


1307 Philip of France arranges with the Papacy the suppres- 
sion of the Templars, on condition of dropping his attack 
on the memory of Boniface VIII. All Templars in France 
(and, soon after, in the other countries of Roman Christen- 
dom) are arrested, imprisoned, and examined on charges 
of heresy, apostasy, and immorality. 

I see the novel Pilate so relentless — 

This * does not sate him — but without decretal 

He to the Temple bears his sordid sails. 

Dante, Purgatorio, xx. 

1307 Death of Edward I of England. His notable work in 
English political and constitutional development. Revival 
of the cause of Scottish independence. 

The English Parliament at Carlisle asks for legislation 
against various Papal taxes and privileges (e.g. Papal 
• provision ' of benefices : see 1351, 1390). 

1307 (The traditional Oath on the Biltli, in the legend of the 
Swiss Liberators, belongs to this year.) 

1308 Baronial uprisings against the misgovernment of 
Edward II, and especially against the favourite, Piers 

1308 Death of Duns Scotus, one of the chief Schoolmen of 
the later Middle Ages, ' Doctor Subtilis '. A critic of 
Thomas Aquinas. A leading teacher, first at Oxford, 
then at Paris. 

1309 The Emperor Henry VII recognizes the immediate 
dependence of the Swiss Forest Cantons (Uri, Schwyz, 
Unterwalden) upon the Empire, thus supporting their 
claim to be independent of the Hapsburg counts and other 

1309 Beginning of the Papal residence (' captivity ') at Avignon. 

1309 Seat of the Grand-Master of the Teutonic Order (first at 

1 The overthrow of Boniface VIII. 

PERIOD XXIV : 1303-38 169 

Acre ; at Venice after the fall of Acre, 1291-1309) trans- 
ferred to Marienburg in W. Prussia, SE. of Danzig. 
Highest development of the power of the order at this time 
and during the next hundred years. Buildings of the 
knights at Marienburg. 

Edward II of England put under baronial control 1310 
(twenty-one peers and bishops to regulate the realm and 
royal household, under the name of Lords Ordainers). 

The Council of Ten formed at Venice for suppression of 1310 
conspiracies against the Republic. 

Expedition of the Emperor Henry VII to Rome and 1310-13 
Italy (celebrated by Dante). He is crowned King of Italy 
at Pavia, Emperor at Rome (1312), subdues Brescia, is 
welcomed in Genoa and Pisa, repulsed from Florence, dies 
on his way to attack Naples (1313). 

Beginning of the rule of the Visconti in Milan (as gover- 1310 
nors for the Emperor Henry VII). 

Annexation of Lyons to France by Philip the Fair. 1310-12 

The county of Burgundy [' Frei-Grafschaft ', 'Franche- 
Comte', an imperial possession since 1033, q. v.], momen- 
tarily gained by France (marriage of Philip IV). 

With this begins French aggression at the expense of 
other powers, and in particular at the expense of the old 
kingdom of Burgundy. 

Progress of the cause of Scottish independence under 1311-13 
Robert Bruce (Perth taken 1312 ; Edinburgh, 1313). 

Suppression of the Templars in France, and throughout 1312 
Roman Christendom, by Papal Bull. 

Fresh English invasion of Scotland, repulsed in battle 1314 
of Bannockburn, which decisively secures the independence 
of the Scots. 

Death of Philip the Fair. His great work for the con- 1314 
solidation and extension of the French kingdom (develop- 


ment of the French Parliament ; aggression on the fiefs of 
England ; annexation of Lyons ; aggression on the Empire ; 
the welding together of the French nation in the struggle 
with the Papacy). Philip's position as leader of the new 
nations in the struggle of the secular power against the 
Papal claims. His anticipations of future anti-Church 
movement — as in the overthrow of Boniface VIII, the 
subjection of the Papacy to French domination, the dis- 
solution of the Templars. 
1314-30 New interregnum in Germany, through a disputed 
election (Lewis the Bavarian ; Frederick of Austria). 

1315-18 Scotch attack on Ireland under Edward and Robert 
Bruce. Remarkable initial success is followed by failure. 

1315 Battle of Morgarten. Victory of the Swiss Confederates 
over Leopold of Austria. Ludwig the Bavarian renews 
the recognition of the immediate dependence of the Forest 
Cantons upon the Empire. 

1315 Death of Raymond Lull [' Lully '], Spanish noble, 
schoolman, and missionary [b. 1235 at Palma, Majorca]. 
His Ars Magna — an attempt at a new method of investiga- 
tion in knowledge, adapted to ' answer any question or 
any topic '. Lull's voluminous works contain many points 
of interest — e.g. on the map -science and navigation of 
that time, and on the possibility of discovering an all-sea 
route round Africa to the Indies. 

1318 Invasion of the North of England by the Scots under 
Robert Bruce. Wasting of Yorkshire. 

1320 Beginnings of the University of Florence. 

C 1320 Cracow becomes the capital of Poland (and so remains till 
c. 1550-1609, when the seat of government is gradually 
moved to Warsaw. It remains the coronation city till the 
eve of the ruin of Poland — 1764). In earlier time (from 
the eleventh century) Gnesen had perhaps more nearly 

PERIOD XXIV : 1303-38 171 

occupied the position of a capital than any other Polish 

Fierce quarrels of the Papacy (especially under John XXII) 1320-9 
■with the extreme or ' Spiritual Franciscans ' (' Fraticelli '), 
who demanded ' evangelic poverty ' of the Pope and all 
churchmen, denounced the wealth, splendour, and luxury 
of the Papal Court and so much of the hierarchy, and in 
some ways prepared the way for Wycliffism. The learned 
Fraticelli, such as William of Occam, pursued lines of 
thought far from helpful to Papal claims, while itinerant 
friar-preachers ' familiarized the people down to the lowest 
classes with the notion that the Pope and the [local] 
Roman Church were the mystical Antichrist and Babylon \ 
Thus ' the surest support of the Papacy was turned in great 
part to dangerous opposition '. 

Death of Dante Alighieri, greatest of mediaeval and of 1321 
all Italian poets ; one of the chief names in literature. 
The Divina Commedia (Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso), 
probably begun before 1300, was mainly written before 
1318, while Dante was in exile. His De Monarchia ' the 
epitaph of the Mediaeval State '. 

The English House of Commons finally gains a share 1322 
in legislation, and the wages of the members are fixed. 

The unique lantern of Ely Cathedral, the only Gothic 1322-8 
dome in England, built. 

Marsilio of Padua issues his Defensor Pads, a ' prediction 1326 
of the Modern State ', which questions the extreme Papal 
claims, both temporal and spiritual [see 1349]. 

Completion of the Town Hall of Siena [see 1295]. 1327 

The Ottoman Turks take Brusa, and begin to be an 1327 
important power in Asia Minor. 

Birth of Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great English poet, c. 1328 
one of the leading figures in the new literatures of Europe. 


1328 Complete independence of Scotland recognized by Eng- 

1325-41 Ivan 'Kalita 5 ['Purser'] founds the greatness of Moscow, 
largely by his eager and efficient subservience to his Mongol 
overlords. To Moscow is now permanently attached (except 
for very rare intervals) (a) the Grand Princedom or political 
headship of the Russian principalities ; (b) the Metro- 
politan or spiritual head of the Russian Church. 

1329 Death of ' Meister ' Eckhart, German religious teacher, 
earliest of the great speculative mystics, pupil (?) of Albert 
the Great, teacher of Tauler [see 1361]. 

1332-3 Separation of the Houses of Lords and Commons in the 
English Parliament. 

1334 Death of Giotto of Florence, architect and painter, ' the 
true father of modern painting '. 

1337 Edward III of England raises his claim to the French 

1338 Outbreak of the Hundred Years' War. 

1338 The Electors of the Empire (at Rhense, near Coblenz) 
declare the Papal coronation unnecessary for the complete 
recognition of an Emperor. 

Before Gunpowder was probably invented before this time : it 
1338 is first used about 1340, q. v. 




AVIGNON, 1338-78 

General Points 

1. First period of the Hundred Years' War between 
France and England. English victories and conquests, 
followed by loss of almost all acquisitions. Development 
of French power long delayed by this war. 

2. The Papal ' captivity ' at Avignon continued ; it is 
at last ended by return to Rome. Struggles of French 
influence to retain ascendancy. 

2 a. Largely through the Avignon scandal, anti-Papal 
and anti-Church views revive, especially through John 
Wycliffe, ' the forerunner of Protestantism in England '. 

3. The Black Death sweeps over all Europe, pro- 
ducing decisive economic and social changes (peasant 
revolts, &c). 

4. Further decline of the Eastern Empire. The Ottoman 
Turks in Europe : their pressure upon Constantinople. 

5. Partial improvement in the power of the Western 
Empire and German kingdom. Prosperity of German 
trade and city life (Hanseatic League) and of German 
racial expansion (Teutonic Order, &c.) Growth of the 
Swiss or High German League. 


6. Progress of European explorations in the Atlantic 
and in Asia — prosecution of trade, missions, &c, in the 
Mongol world. 

6 a. End of the Mongol world-empire. Collapse of 
European trade, missions, &c, in Asia. 

7. Developments of European civilization. Literature, 
art, science, &c. First use of gunpowder. New universi- 
ties. Decline of scholasticism. Growth of mysticism, early 
Protestantism. First signs of the Classical Renaissance. 

PERIOD XXV : 1338-78 


Outbreak of war between France and England. 1338 

Embassy (headed by the Franciscan, John de Marignolli) 1338-53 
sent to the Mongol courts, and especially to that of the 
supreme Mongol-Chinese emperor in Peking, from the Pope. 

First appearance of any of the African islands (some of 1339 
Canaries, and perhaps Madeiras) in modern scientific maps. 

Naval victory of the English and their Flemish allies 1340 
(the latter inspired by James van Artevelde, the ' tribune ' 
of Ghent) at Sluys. 

Monastery of the Trinity (' Troitsa ') founded near 1340 
Moscow — after Kiev the richest, most celebrated, and 
most important religious house of Russia, centre of the 
national resistance to the Poles in the early seventeenth 
century (1608, &c). 

The invasion of Spain by fresh Muslim hosts from Africa 1340 
(Berbers) defeated at the battle of Tarifa, or the Salado 
(' Salt Stream '). One of the first recorded instances of fire- 

Exploration of the Canaries by a Portuguese fleet with 1341 
Italian pilots and captains. This expedition is described 
by Boccaccio. 

Powerful position of the Magyar state (Hungary) at 1342-82 
this time, under King Lewis ' the Great '. Conquest of 
Moldavia. Defeat of Bulgaria and Venice. Temporary 
union of Hungary and Poland [see 1370]. 

Buildings of Edward III of England at Windsor Castle, c. 1344, 

largely reconstructions of the work of William the Con- & c * 

queror, Henry III, &c. 

Foundation of the University of Valladolid. 1346 

Voyage of Catalan adventurers to West Africa. Dis- 1346 

co very of fresh coast (from Cape Nun to Cape Bojador) 

opposite the Canaries. 


1346 English invasion of N. France. Great English victory 
at Crecy in Picardy. Use of little cannon. 

1347-54 Cola di Rienzi attempts the ' fantastic enterprise ' of 
a ' restoration of the Roman Republic '. Transient, brilliant 
success, followed by failure. 

1347 Siege and capture of Calais by the English. 

1347-8 The Black Death, the most terrible of recorded pesti- 
lences, reaches France, Italy, England, Spain, and Germany, 
1348. It perhaps originated in China : it is noticed in 
Russia and the Crimea, in Armenia and Asia Minor, on its 
way westward. It continues to ravage most of Europe at 
intervals, till about 1368-9, and helps to produce great 
economic and social change. 

1347-9 Acquisition of Montpellier (from Aragon), and of Dau- 
phine, by the French kingdom. From this the heir of the 
French crown acquires the title of Dauphin. 

1347 First imposition of the Gabelle tax (an impost on salt) in 

1348 Foundation of the University of Prague, the earliest in 
Central Europe, by Charles IV, Emperor and King of 
Bohemia (' Bohemia's father, the Empire's stepfather '). 

1349 Death of Richard Rolle of Hampole, saint, ascetic, and 
preacher, author of The Prick of Conscience and other 
works important in the development of (Middle) English 
language and literature. 

1349 Ordinance of Labourers in England, fixing wages, for- 
bidding alms to ' sturdy beggars ', &c. 

c. 1349 Death of William of Occam, ' Doctor invincibilis ', the 
most brilliant of the schoolmen of the fourteenth century. 
He represents also the anti-Papal tendencies of the Fran- 
ciscan revolt of this time. Protected by the Emperor 
Ludwig (Louis) of Bavaria, he writes against the more 

PERIOD XXV : 1338-78 177 

extreme Papal claims, both temporal and spiritual. He is 
said to have inspired Marsilio of Padua : see 1326, 1320-9. 
Spire of Salisbury Cathedral finished. 1350 

Nave of Glasgow Cathedral built. 1350 

Finishing work to Notre-Dame, Paris. 1351 

The great Genoese (?) Atlas, known as the Laurentian 1351 
Portolano, shows knowledge already acquired by Italian 
(and Portuguese) mariners, &c, of the African Islands 
(Canaries, Madeiras, Azores), and somewhat anticipates 
correct ideas on the shape of the African continent. Good 
knowledge of W. Asia, of the whole Mediterranean, the 
Euxine, and the West Coast of Europe, up to Flanders, 
also shown. 

First Statute of Provisors in England, to prevent exercise 1351 
of Papal patronage in the English Church [see 1307, 1390], 
First Statute of Treasons in England. 1352 

The present Antwerp Cathedral (' largest and most 1352 
beautiful Gothic church in the Netherlands ') commenced. 

First Statute of Praemunire in England — against appeals 1353 
to foreign (i.e. Papal) courts. 

Development of the Swiss Confederacy, by inclusion of 1353 
all the eight old cantons (Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, 
Luzern, Zurich, Zug, Glarus, Bern). 

English victory at Poitiers. Capture of the French king, 1356 
John II. Terrible sufferings of France, especially of the 
poorer classes, from the war. Revolutionary movements in 
town and country. 

(a) Rising in Paris, under fitienne Marcel, ' provost of 1357-8 
the merchants ', who from 1355 had been one of the leaders 
of the commons, and (after Poitiers) a leader in the fortifica- 
tion and defence of the French capital. Marcel becomes, 
for a time, master of the city. He allies himself with the 
revolted peasantry (Jacquerie), establishes a momentary 

1765 N 


' Parliamentary Government ', but is killed July 1358. 
(The French Revolution treated him as a forerunner.) 
1358 (6) The Jacquerie, a rising of the French peasantry — 
mainly in the NE. near Beauvais, Compiegne, Senlis, 
Amiens — accompanied by, and suppressed with, great 
cruelty, May-June 1358. 
1356-8 First establishment of the Ottoman Turks in Europe — 
crossing of the Dardanelles, seizure of Gallipoli, &c. 
From this time the ruin of Christian Constantinople and 
of the relics of the Eastern Empire is clearly threatened. 

1356 The Golden Bull, or (revised) fundamental law of the 
Empire issued by the Emperor Charles IV. 

The Electoral College of the Holy Roman Empire now 
finally fixed. Seven Electors, three clerical, four lay : 

(1) Archbishop of Mainz, arch- chancellor of Germany ; 

(2) Archbishop of Trier (Treves), arch-chancellor of 
Italy ; (3) Archbishop of Cologne, arch-chancellor of Bur- 
gundy ; (4) King of Bohemia, arch-seneschal ; (5) Count 
Palatine of the Rhine, arch-steward ; (6) Duke of Saxony 
(' Sachsen- Wittenberg ' line), arch-marshal ; (7) Margrave of 
Brandenburg, arch-chamberlain. (Note. The electoral vote 
is now refused to Bavaria, though this had been one of 
the four great duchies of the earliest days of the German 
kingdom : see above, under Henry the Fowler, p. 74.) 

The states of these Electors are declared to be indivisible 
and inalienable ; and the electoral vote is attached to the 
holder of the land in each case. 
from c. About this time the Hanseatic League arrives at its 
IqaU *° highest power, and assumes its full organization. Nearly 
a hundred cities (including many inland) now belong to 
it, from Holland and Zealand to the Gulf of Finland. Ltibeck 
becomes recognized as the leading city of the whole League. 
Various divisions of the League : by about 1400 we have : — 
(a) Wendish and Pomeranian, including the primary cities 

PERIOD XXV: 1338-78 179 

of Lubeck and Hamburg ; and the less important, but 
flourishing, ports of the South Baltic coast, and of Holstein, 
from the mouth of the Elbe, and Kiel, to Rugen Island, 
Stettin, and the beginning of Prussia ; (b) Saxon, including 
Bremen, Magdeburg, and Brunswick ; also Goslar, Hanover, 
Gottingen, Halle, &c. ; (c) Prussian, including Danzig, 
Konigsberg, Elbing, Marienburg, Thorn, &c. ; (d) West- 
phalian, including Cologne, Munster, &c, and all the 
present German industrial region of the lower Rhine, and 
from the Rhine east to the Weser ; (e) Margravian (i. e. 
Brandenburg), including Brandenburg and Berlin ; (/) 
Netherlands, including various Dutch cities ; (g) Livonian, 
including various Baltic coast -towns from the present 
frontier of Russia and Germany almost to the mouth of 
the Neva and the site of St. Petersburg, to which we may 
add the islands of Gothland (with Wisby town, once the 
centre of the League) and Oland, off the Swedish coast. 

Not only the head-centres of the Hansa [Lubeck, Bremen, 
Hamburg, &c], but also several of the less-known members 
of the League, e.g. Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund, Greifswald, 
Stargard, had remarkable commercial life at this time. 
And in many of them interesting monuments of this 
mercantile prosperity survive. 

The League had immense interests in foreign countries 
(by the end of the fourteenth century it dominated the 
trade of all Northern Europe). It maintained many 
organized, often more or less fortified, trading-stations in 
various non-German towns. The chief of these were — 
(1) London in England (The Steel- Yard was here the name 
of the Hansa factory) ; (2) Bruges in Old French Flanders ; 
(3) Bergen in Norway ; (4) Novgorod in Russia. To which 
may be added (5) Wisby in Gothland, after this island 
ceases to be considered as a piece of Hanseatic and German 

Spread of the Hansa in the Baltic, in thirteenth and 



fourteenth centuries, aided by the power of the Teutonic 
Order at this time (holding S. and E. Baltic coasts, from 
Danzig to the Gulf of Finland). 

Remarkable activity of German colonization in the Baltic, 
especially in thirteenth and fourteenth centuries — compare 
Greek, Italian, and Russian colonization in the Black Sea 
in ancient, mediaeval, and modern times. 

1360 Peace of Bretigny between France and England. Cession 
of Aquitaine (including Gascony, Guyenne, Poitou, and all 
SW. of France), together with Calais, &c, to England. 
Edward III renounces his claim on the French throne. 

1361 About this time a terrible recurrence of the Black Death, 
&c. especially in England. 

Revolutionary tendencies among lower English classes [as 
among French : see 1356]. Preaching of John Ball. 

1361 Death of Johann Tauler, the Dominican, of Strassburg 
and Basel, a great religious teacher, chief among the 
German mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages [see 

c. 1361 About this time English once more begins to be the 
regular language of the English Law Courts, as for some 
years of the English boys' schools ; and trial by jury 
assumes more modern form. 

1361-2 The Ottoman Turks take Adrianople and Philippopolis. 
Constantinople is now surrounded by Turkish power and 

1361-2 First great war of the Hanseatic League with Walde- 
&C. mar III of Denmark. Copenhagen taken and plundered 
by the forces of the League under John Wittenborg, burgo- 
master of Llibeck. Wittenborg, defeated off Helsingborg, 
is disgraced, imprisoned, and executed at Ltibeck. 

1362 The Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman, an 
English poem of real genius, giving a dark picture of 

PERIOD XXV : 1338-78 181 

fourteenth-century life in England, first written by William 
Langland (or Langley) — revised and enlarged about 1377. 

Alleged voyages of French sailors, especially from c. 1364, 
Normandy [Dieppe, Rouen], to the Guinea coast, beyond &c. 
C. Verde (?). 

First foundation of the University of Cracow [see 1401]. 1364 

First foundation of the University of Vienna. 1364 

Congress of the Hanseatic League at Cologne (repre- 1364 
sentatives from seventy-seven towns). Promulgation of 
a constitution, and declaration of war against Denmark. 

William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester — one of 1366- 
the chief English mediaeval statesmen, churchmen, and 1404 
builders. His work in the Good Parliament [see 1376] ; 
in the foundation of Winchester College, and of New College, 
Oxford ; and in the rebuilding of Winchester Cathedral. 

Second (wholly victorious) war of the Hansa with 1367-70 
Denmark. Flight of Waldemar. By Treaty of Stralsund, 
1370, the League imposes humiliating terms on Denmark, 
and secures enormous advantages (domination of the 
Sound, and, for a time, of Scania, thus controlling the 
entrance of the Baltic ; claim to a voice in the succession 
to the Danish crown). Thus the Hansa arrives at its full 
development. ' La Ligue va atteindre Fage viril ' (Worms). 

Till the sixteenth century the Hansa retains its com- 
mercial ascendancy over the Scandinavian lands. But 
much of its political power passes with the Union of 
Kalmar (1397). 

Other leagues in Germany, somewhat similar to, and 
sometimes overlapping, the Northern Hansa, may be 
noticed, e.g. (1) the Rhine League, founded 1254 by the 
confederating of Mainz and Worms in the time of the 
Great Interregnum, joined by the Archbishops of Mainz, 
Cologne, Trier, and other bishops, nobles, and cities, and 


several times renewed ; in 1381 united with (2) the Swabian 
City League, founded 1331, renewed 1376. 

Modern German commercial and maritime activity is 
foreshadowed and illustrated by the Hansa and the other 
city leagues of this time. 

1368-70 Break-up of the Mongol Empire. Expulsion of the 
Mongols from China. Collapse of Christian trade, missions, 
&c, throughout the Mongol world. 

1369 The Bastille (or fort at the gate of St. Antoine), Paris, 
completed by Charles V of France. From the first it is 
a state-prison as well as a fortress, and the former use 
becomes ultimately the chief characteristic of this vast 
and gloomy pile, destroyed July 14, 1789. 

1369-74 Renewal of the Hundred Years' War between England 
and France. Loss of all the English gains (of the Bretigny 
Treaty), except Calais. English Aquitaine again restricted 
to Bordeaux, Bayonne, and the coastal strip. Truce. 

1369 Timur [Timur Lenk, ' Tamerlane '] begins to build 
up a second Mongol Empire in Western and Central Asia. 

1370 Temporary union of the crowns of Hungary and Poland 
under Lewis ' the Great ' of Hungary [see 1342-82]. 

c. 1373 Beginnings of the Royal Library of France under 
Charles V (first catalogue, 1373). This collection was, 
however, taken to England after 1425 and dispersed [see 

1373 William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, begins the 
foundation of Winchester College, the oldest of the great 
public schools of England. 

1375 Death of Boccaccio (b. 1313), the first great European 
novelist, author of the Decameron ; one of the founders, 
with Dante and Petrarch, of modern Italian as a literary 
language ; and, with Petrarch, one of the chief harbingers 
of the Classical Renaissance. 

PERIOD XXV : 1338-78 183 

The Catalan Atlas (giving the best representation of 1375 
Asia — especially of the Indian Peninsula and the Chinese 
Orient, here first delineated with some accuracy — that 
had yet appeared). ' Here we have much the same picture 
of a Far East and the Indies that Marco Polo himself would 
have drawn, if he had turned cartographer.' 

Death of Orcagna, after Giotto the leading Italian 1376 (?) 
painter, sculptor, and architect of the fourteenth century 
(b. 1316 ?). Magnificent works at Florence, Orvieto 
(Pisa ?), &c. 

The Good Parliament in England. Attack upon royal 1376 
favourites. Parliament — supported by the Black Prince 
arid William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester — begins 
to exercise the power of impeachment. John of Gaunt, 
fourth son of Edward III, who had been practically at 
the head of the ' government by favourites ', is momen- 
tarily driven from power, but recovers it after the dissolu- 
tion of the Good Parliament and the death of the Black 
Prince (June 1376). 

John Wycliffe, supported by John of Gaunt, begins to 
attack the clergy and the religious orders. 

Pope Gregory XI, urged from many quarters — some 1376-7 
represented by Petrarch, others by St. Catherine of Siena 
and other prophetesses of this time — leaves Avignon 
(Sept.) and returns to Rome (January). End of the ' Baby- 
lonish captivity * of the Papacy. 

Poll-tax in England. Death of Edward III. Accession 1377 
of his grandson, Richard II. 

Commencement of the (present) ' Cathedral ' of Ulm in 1377 
Wurttemberg, with designs for the loftiest spire in Christen- 
dom, 534 feet, carried out in nineteenth century. 

Death of Gregory XI at Rome (March). 1378 

Struggle of conflicting interests — French and Italian 
especially — for control of the Papacy. 



General Points 

1. The Great Schism. French influence at the Papal 
Court, defeated by the return from Avignon, revives in 
the Schism (rival lines of French and Italian popes). 

2. Progress of ' Wyclifiism ' in England, and of parallel 
1 Hussite ' movements in Bohemia. This ' early Protestan- 
tism ' is checked by a strong alliance of Church and State 
in the countries affected (Wyclifiism is somewhat allied 
to the ' social revolution ' and extreme democratic ten- 
dencies). Persecution of * Lollards '. 

The Council of Constance meets to end the Schism, put 
down Wyclifiism and Hussism, and reform the Church. 

3. Highest development of the English Parliament and 
of English Constitutional Liberties in the Middle Ages. 
Limitations of the Monarchy, especially under the first 
Lancastrian king. 

Social and economic changes in England. The peasant 
revolt of 1381. 

4. Decisive struggle of Genoa and Venice, ended by the 
victory of Venice, which from this time eclipses her rival. 
Rapid decline of Genoa. 

Rise of Florence. 

Growth of the power of the Tyrants in Italy. Ruin of 
most of the City -Republics. 

5. Beginnings of the great age of Portugal. 

PERIOD XXVI : 1378-1415 185 

6. The union of Poland and Lithuania. 

Defeat of the Teutonic Order by Poland-Lithuania. 
Ebb of German colonization and conquest in Eastern 

7. Moscow begins to lead a movement of Russian inde- 
pendence and nationality against the Tartars. Brilliant 
success, followed by disaster. 

8. Continued decay of the Eastern Empire. 

Progress of Turkish power. Conquest of most of Balkan 
Peninsula. Imminent danger of Constantinople, post- 
poned by 

9. Rise of a Second Mongol Empire, that of Timur, which 
defeats the Ottoman Turks and the Golden Horde (thus 
helping Constantinople and Russia), but dissolves at the 
death of Timur. 

10. The Union of Kalmar joins Denmark, Norway, and 
Sweden in one great united kingdom, for a time. 

11. Progress of European civilization. Beginnings of 
Perpendicular architecture (last phase of Gothic). Last 
age of Scholasticism. Growth of Mysticism. 

New Universities. Literature, science, and art. Growing 
strength of classical ' Renaissance ' movements. 


1378- Rebuilding of nave and transepts of Canterbury Cathedral 
1414 in present ' Perpendicular ' form. 

1378 Accession of Pope Urban VI, an Italian. His extreme 
personal unpopularity, and the strength of the French 
party in the College of Cardinals, cause the outbreak of 
the Great Schism (September 1378), which lasts till 1415. 
Two lines of popes, an Italian and a French, both claim 
recognition ; from 1410 to 1415 a third line appears, as 
the only result of the efforts of the Council of Pisa to end 
the Schism. 

From this time the popes begin to reside at the Vatican 
Palace : up to the Avignon captivity they usually kept 
their court at the Lateran. 

1378 The ' Strassburg clock ' constructed. 

1379 Foundation of New College, Oxford, by William of 
Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester. 

1379-80 Poll-taxes in England. Popular discontent. 

1379 ' Bills of exchange ' first recognized in English law. 

1380 Completion of the buildings of Charles V of France 
(begun 1364) at the Royal Palace of the Louvre, Paris. 

1380 Death of Charles V of France (' le Sage '). Accession 
of the child-king, Charles VI, whose insanity soon declares 
itself (from 1392). 

c. 1380 Wycliffe completes and issues his translation of the Bible 
— the earliest version in English of the whole of Old and 
New Testaments. 

1381 The ' Peasant Revolt ', in England — ' the English Jac- 
querie ' — led by Wat Tyler, Jack Straw, John Ball, &c, 
aided by Wycliffe 's teaching and the preaching of his 
1 Poor Priests '. London in the hands of the insurgents. 
Murder of Archbishop Sudbury of Canterbury in the Tower. 
The palace of the Savoy sacked, with other great residences 
in town and country. Abolition of villeinage demanded 

PERIOD XXVI : 1378-1415 187 

(and promised by Richard II). Most of the insurgents 
disperse. Wat Tyler killed. The revolt suppressed. 
Measures of retaliation, as in France. 

Both in England and in France these risings help re- 
actionary tendencies, which culminate in the age of the 
New Monarchies. In England the rising of 1381 also helps 
to hasten the end of villeinage. 

The Peace of Turin ends the ' war of Chioggia ' between 1381 
Venice and Genoa. From this time Genoa rapidly declines, 
and Venice gains the undisputed primacy among com- 
mercial republics and Italian naval powers. 

The democracy of Ghent, long led by James and Philip 1382 
van Artevelde, defeated by the French forces at Roosebeke, 
where Philip van Artevelde is killed. James, his father, 
had been murdered in 1345. 

Death o! John Wycliffe. In his last years (especially 1384 
in his Trialogus, 1383-4) he parts more and more 
clearly from the accepted theology of the West. Thus, 
e.g., he speaks of the Pope as 'the great Antichrist', of the 
chief prelates as ' lesser Antichrists ' ; denounces indul- 
gences and the position of the ' saints ' in the Church 
system ; expounds a doctrine of the Eucharist which is 
practically ' virtualism ' ; denies the necessity of epis- 
copacy ; and attacks confession and the whole penitential 
system, extreme unction, &c. The endowments of the 
Church, the orders of monks and friars, and even the mass 
of the clergy, he attacks, much in the manner of the later 

Wycliffe is historically the first great teacher of ' Pro- 
testantism '. Through Lollards and Hussites his views are 
kept alive into the sixteenth century. 

The Canterbury Tales of Chaucer. 1384-8 

Foundation of the University of Heidelberg. 1385 

By this time the power of the Ottoman Turks is estab- 1385 


lished over most of Bulgaria and Macedonia. Danger of 
Constantinople . 

1385 Accession of John the Great, founder of the House of 
Aviz, to the throne of Portugal. Repulse of the Castillian 
invasion (August 14, 1385, battle of Aljubarrota, north of 
Lisbon ; decisive victory of Portugal). With this begins 
the importance of Portugal to the world. From 1415 till 
1492 Portugal is the leader of the European expansion, 
and till about 1580 she remains, with Spain, the chief 
colonial power. 

1386 Important victory of the Swiss Confederates at Sempach 
over Leopold of Austria, in alliance with the south German 

Struggles between the Dukes of Austria and the Swiss 
Confederates continue, 1385-1468, ending in the success 
of the latter. 
1386 Library of the University of Heidelberg established 
(oldest still existing in Germany ?). 

1386 Union of Poland and Lithuania by the marriage of the 
Polish Queen Hedwig [Yatviga] with the Lithuanian 
Grand Prince Yagielo (' Jagellon '), and the conversion of 
Lithuania to Christianity (' Jagellon ' dynasty, 1386- 

1387 Commencement of Milan Cathedral. 

1388 Foundation of the Church and Monastery of Batalha in 
Portugal (the finest Gothic building in that country) 
in commemoration of the victory of 1385 [which see]. 

1388, Struggles between the cobles and the cities in South 
&c. Germany. 

1388 Foundation of the University of Cologne. 

1389 Great victory of the Ottomans over the Serbs, and their 
allies, at Kossovo Polye. This marks the complete subjec- 
tion of the Slavs of the Balkan Peninsula by the Turks. 

PERIOD XXVI : 1378-1415 189 

Timur attacks and defeats the Mongols of Russia (' the 1390, 
Golden Horde '), thereby helping towards the ultimate &c. 
emancipation of Christian Russia from the Tartars (com- 
pleted by 1480). 

Conquests of Timur (Timur Lenk, ' Lame Timur ', or 1370- 
Tamerlane), who forms a second Mongol Empire in Central 1405 
and Western Asia. His terrible devastations, from Delhi 
to Damascus, from the Aegean to the Volga and the Irtish. 

The principal buildings of the Alhambra, Granada, 1390 
completed [see 1270]. 

The re-issued and strengthened Statutes of Provisors 1390-3 
(1390), Mortmain (1391), and Praemunire (1393), in 
England, illustrate the rise of the New Nationalism and the 
waning political power of the Church. 

Foundation of the University of Ferrara by a Bull of 1391 
Pope Boniface IX. 

Madness of King Charles VI of France. Disputes over 1392 
Regency. Civil strife. 

Gower's Confessio Amantis. 1393 

Turkish pressure upon Constantinople. But for the 1395- 
intervention of Timur, the Ottomans would have become 1402 
masters of the city. 

A Christian Crusade, led by Sigismund, King of Hungary, 1396 
afterwards emperor, to deliver Constantinople and the 
Balkan lands from the power of the Ottoman Turks, is 
utterly defeated by Sultan Bajazet (Bayazid) at Nikopolis 
on the Danube. 

John Galeazzo Visconti founds the Certosa (' Char- 1396 
treuse ' or Carthusian House), ' the most sumptuous 
monastery of Italy ', near Pa via. 

Bodiam Castle, Sussex, completed — a typical illustra- c. 1396 
tion of the English fortress-mansion of the later Middle 


1397, The earliest of the important (existing) buildings of the 
& c » Kremlin at Moscow begun (Cathedral of the Annuncia- 
1397 The Union of Kalmar [in Sweden] unites all the three 
Scandinavian powers, Denmark, Sweden (with Finland), 
and Norway, under the sovereignty of Denmark, in the 
person of Queen Margaret. 

Importance of this Union, which is a parallel to those 
of Leon and Castile (1230), Poland and Lithuania (1386), 
Castile and Aragon (1479), England and Scotland (1603), 
and which offered the Scandinavian nations a unique 
opportunity of combining in a really powerful state. 
Sweden finally broke away in 1520. Norway and Denmark 
remained united till 1814. 
After Oslo (Old Christiania) becomes the capital of Norway. 

John Hus, the leading exponent on the Continent of 
1 Protestant ' views similar to Wycliffe's, becomes a lead- 
ing figure in Prague — professor at the University, preacher 
at Bethlehem Chapel. He is also a champion of Bohemian 
nationalism, embodied in the Slav or Chekh majority, as 
against the powerful German minority. 

1399 Deposition of Richard II of England. End of the Flan- 
tagenet and beginning of the Lancastrian line. Assertion of 
constitutional right (a parallel, in many ways, to 1688). 
Richard's fall is the overthrow of a new absolutism which 
had attempted to crush the mediaeval liberties. ' He had 
challenged the Constitution, and the Constitution had 
broken him.' Henry IV comes in as a constitutional 
sovereign, as an ally of the Church against Wycliffism or 
Lollardy, and as a defender of Society against revolutionary 
doctrine and movement. 

Before Completion of the Cathedral of Bourges (some additions 

1400 in sixteenth century). 

C. 1400 Perpendicular architecture (the last great development 


PERIOD XXVI : 1378-1415 191 

of Gothic) begins to prevail in W. Europe. In later fifteenth 
century it passes into more and more florid forms (called 
in France Flamboyant). 

Death of William Langland, author of Piers Plowman 1400 
[see pp. 180-1]. 

Conspiracy against the Lancastrian dynasty in England. 1400 
Revolt of Owen Glendower in Wales. 

Birth of Luca della Robbia, great Florentine artist and 1400 
sculptor, especially in terra-cotta (died 1482). 

Death of Geoffrey Chaucer [see 1328]. 1400 

Reconstitution and complete foundation of the Uni- 1400-1 
versity of Cracow, the earliest in Poland [see 1364]. 

Fresh interregnum in Germany. 1400-10 

Repudiation of Wenzel (Wenceslaus) as emperor by 
a strong party in Germany (1400). He reigns as King of 
Bohemia till 1419. 

Rupert, Count Palatine, 1400-10, the opposition emperor, 
is almost a figure-head. 

Birth of Nicolas of Cusa (d. 1464), sometimes called ' the 1401 
last of the schoolmen ', but rather to be classed with the 
mystics (see Eckhard 1329). The better Scholasticism is 
now passing into Mysticism. 

The Act De Heretico Comburendo in England, a result 1401 
of the alliance between the Lancastrians and the Church. 
First executions for Lollard heresy follow. 

Timur attacks the Ottoman Turks and defeats them at 1402 
Angora, in North-Central Asia Minor (July). Bajazet 
taken prisoner. All Asia Minor momentarily overrun by 
Timur 's armies. The Ottoman power broken for twenty 
years : the fall of Constantinople deferred for half a century. 

Seville Cathedral (the present building, perhaps the 1402 
greatest of Spanish churches, finished 1506) begun. The 
chief architects were perhaps German. 


1402-3 Renewed conspiracies in England, allied with Glendower 
and Douglas, and headed by Harry Percy (Hotspur), the 
Earl of Northumberland (Hotspur's father), Scrope, Arch- 
bishop of York, and others. This conspiracy crushed at 
the battle of Shrewsbury (July 1403). 

1402-6 French adventurers' conquest of the Northern Canaries. 
Beginnings of a permanent European rule and settlement 
in the Atlantic Islands. 

1402-5 Spanish embassy (headed by Ruy Goncalvez de Clavijo) 
to the court of Timur. With this ends European official 
intercourse with Inner Asia for a long time. 

1405 Death of Timur, at Otrar in Western Central Asia, on 
his way to attack China. Dissolution of the Second Mongol 
Empire. The gradual disappearance of the Mongol states 
follows. (But in the sixteenth century, from 1526, a 
descendant of Timur founds a Third Mongol Empire in 
India, the dominion of ' the Great Mogul '.) The con- 
version of most of the Western Mongols to Islam is com- 
pleted during Timur's lifetime. Ruin of Christian hopes. 
The Eastern Mongols mainly won to Buddhism. 

1406-10 The Parliaments of these years appear to mark the 
zenith of mediaeval constitutional life in England. (Elec- 
tions to Parliament safeguarded ; an audit of the grants 
from the Commons to the Crown secured ; the Commons' 
sole right to originate money grants conceded ; perfect 
freedom of deliberation between the Houses on money 
grants recognized ; proposals to confiscate Church property 
for military purposes, &c.) 

1407, Increasing civil strife in France (' Burgundians ' and 

&c. ' Armagnacs ' (1410)). Murder of the Duke of Orleans by 

order of the Duke of Burgundy. The English Government 

first helps the Burgundians (1411), then the Orleanists or 

Armagnacs (1412). 

PERIOD XXVI : 1378-1415 193 

The Council of Pisa tries to end the Great Schism, but 1409 
fails, only adding a third line of rival popes. 

Hussite troubles in Prague. Violent quarrels between 1409 
Germans and Chekhs, the latter inclining to Wycliffism. 
All German professors and students leave the University 
and migrate to Leipzig. 

Foundation of the University of Leipzig, the earliest 1409 
in Germany proper, largely by migration from Prague. 
University library at Leipzig established. 

Death of Froissart. 1410 

Election of Sigismund or Siegmund, King of Hungary, 1410 
brother of Wenceslaus (Wenzel), as emperor. 

Defeat of the Teutonic Knights at Tannenberg or Griin- 1410 
wald by the united Poles and Lithuanians [see 1386], 
This event, largely the result of the conversion of Lithuania 
and its union with Poland, marks the commencement of 
a long ebb of Germanic influence and aggression in the 
Baltic lands, and of a remarkable Slavonic revival, first 
under Poland, then under Russia. This process of German 
decline is not arrested till the rise of Brandenburg-Prussia 
under the Great Elector (especially from about 1657). 

Papal buildings in extension of the Vatican Palace, 1410-17 

Foundation of the University of St. Andrews, the earliest 1411 
in Scotland. 

Re-foundation of the University of Pa via (see 1110 (?), 1412 
1361), which, in the fifteenth century, enjoys its most 
brilliant success. 

Accession of Henry V (' the great Lancastrian ') in 1413 
England. The Lancastrian alliance with the Church 
strengthened. Incipient, and fruitless, Lollard rising, in 
connexion with the condemnation of Sir John Oldcastle 
(Lord Cobham). 

1765 n 


1414 The Council of Constance (1414-18) summoned by 
Pope John XXIII and the Emperor Sigismund (at 
Constance on the Lake of Constance). 

Pope John, whose deposition by any real Council of the 
Church was probable enough, struggles against pressure 
from all sides — the Emperor leading — but is forced to 

This Council is (a) the most important assembly of the 
Church since the Lateran Council of 1215, or in many 
respects throughout the whole of the Middle Ages proper 
(since the fifth century). 

(6) A Diet or Council of the Empire. 

(c) A European Congress. 

It is perhaps the most representative gathering of Latin 
Christendom, as a whole, at any time. ' The number of 
ecclesiastics present, with their attendants, is reckoned 
at 18,000. During the . . . Council there were usually 
50,000 strangers within the walls of Constance : some- 
times twice that number. . . . Among those attracted . . . 
by hope of gain were . . . merchants, lawyers in great 
numbers and in all varieties, artists and craftsmen, players, 
jugglers, and musicians ' (Robertson). 

The Council is opened November 5, 1414, by Pope John 
XXIII ; the first general session is held November 16 ; full 
business begins with the arrival of Sigismund, December 25. 
The leading spirit of the Council at first is John Gerson, 
Chancellor of the University of Paris, who does most to pro- 
cure the condemnation of Hus and Jerome, but is defeated 
in his efforts for Church reform. 

Three main objects of the Council : 

(a) Causa Unionis, or the unity of the Church and the 
suppression of the schism. 

(b) Causa Eeformationis, or the reform of the Church 
' in head and members ' — by this is meant the ending of 
practical abuses, not the alteration of doctrine. 

PERIOD XXVI : 1378-1415 195 

(c) Causa Fidei, or the reassertion of the faith and the 
suppression of heresy. 

Meeting of disaffected Lollards at St. Giles's Fields, 1414 
London, dispersed. Fresh English statute against Lollard 

Parliamentary control of legislation in England strength- 1414 
ened (enactment that statutes shall be promulgated with- 
out alteration of the petitions on which they are based). 

Parliament confiscates the ' alien priories ' in England 
(property of religious houses belonging to foreigners) and 
grants them to the Crown. Note the strengthening of 
national and royal control over the Church in England — 
another forecast of the sixteenth-century Reformation. 

The Council of Constance decides its method of voting 1415 
(by ' nations '), settles all preliminaries, and proceeds to 
business (February). 

Four ' nations ' are recognized at first — Italian, German, 
French, English, to which the Spanish is added later. The 
method of formation is highly arbitrary — thus the English 
' nation ' is made to include Ireland, Arabia, Media, Persia, 
India, Ethiopia, Egypt, Marocco, and the ' land of Prester 
John '. 



EUROPE, 1415-53 

General Points 

1. The Council of Constance ends the schism, condemns 
Wycliffe and Hus, but fails to effect a thorough reform 
of the Church. Later efforts to maintain the conciliar 
movement of reform frustrated. 

2. Last period of the Hundred Years' War, which ends 
with the expulsion of the English from all France [except 
Calais] and the destruction of their continental empire, 
inherited from William the Conqueror and Henry II. 

3. Revival of the French monarchy and nation, after 
terrible sufferings. Tendency towards strong centralized 
government ('New Monarchy') here and all over Europe. 

4. Practical collapse of the constitutional regime in 

England. Beginnings of civil strife (' Wars of Roses '). 

5. Progress of Portuguese expansion. Discoveries in 
the Atlantic and along the west coast of Africa. The 
Equator approached. 

6. Fall of Constantinople and end of the Eastern Empire. 
Ottoman Turkish dominion in its place. Flight of Byzan- 
tines to W. Europe. 

PERIOD XXVII : 1415-53 197 

7. Gradual weakening of Mongol Tartar power in 
Russia. Moscow tends to become fully independent, and 
to carry with it great part of the Russian land. 

8. The ■ Hussite Wars ', ending in a compromise, by 
which the Church has to some extent to admit defeat 
(forecast of sixteenth-century disasters). Military impor- 
tance of Hussite struggle. New methods of warfare. 

9. Beginnings of the Hohenzollerns in Brandenburg. 

10. Progress of European civilization. The great age 
of the Classical Renaissance begins, especially in Italy. 
Mediaeval conditions and the mediaeval spirit are now 
rapidly passing away. Interest in the New Learning. 
Invention of printing. Reintroduction and cheapening of 
paper. Growth of libraries. New universities. 

Literature, science, and art. Marvellous artistic develop- 
ments. Effect of geographical and scientific discoveries. 
Development of firearms, changing the whole of war. ' At 
the threshold of the modern world.' 


1415 Henry V of England claims the French crown, summons 
the Great Council [Magnum Concilium], and declares war 
with their assent. 

1415 Proceedings of the Council of Constance, which asserts 
the supremacy of a General Council, properly summoned, 
over any Pope. 

The three Popes of the schism removed : 

(a) Pope John XXIII compelled to abdicate (May 29). 

(6) Resignation of Pope Gregory XII (July 4). 

(c) Benedict XIII deserted by his supporters (December). 
* The harmless old man was left in a solitary castle to 
excommunicate twice each day the rebel kingdoms which 
had deserted his cause ' [Gibbon]. 

The Great Schism is now practically ended, and all is now 
clear for the election of a fresh Pope for all Latin Christendom. 

John Hus summoned before the Council, imprisoned, 
condemned, and executed as a leader of heresy (July 6). 

Hus's friend, Jerome of Prague, arrested and imprisoned 
(finally condemned and executed, 1416). 

The Emperor Sigismund grants the Mark of Branden- 
burg to his stanch supporter, Frederick of Hohenzollern, 
Burggrave of Nuremberg. Beginning of the Hohenzollern 
dynasty in Brandenburg (and later Prussia). 

Outbreak of hostilities between England and France. 
Henry V lands at Le Havre, captures Harfleur (September), 
and defeats a French army at Agincourt (Azincourt), 
(October 25). 

1415 Capture of Ceuta in Africa (opposite Gibraltar) by the 
Portuguese (August 24). Beginning of the Portuguese 
Empire in Morocco, and of the great Portuguese age of 
expansion generally. 

Prince Henry of Portugal, ' the Navigator ', third son 
of Ejng John, sends out his first expeditions into the 
Atlantic or along W. Africa. 

PERIOD XXVII : 1415-53 199 

Portuguese ships arrive at the island of Grand Canary 1415 
[already well known to explorers] and take possession of 
part of it. 

Visit of the Emperor Sigismund to France and England. 1416 
His fruitless efforts to reconcile the combatants and unite 
them in a league against the Turks : he is more successful 
in winning general approval for the measures of the Council, 
already taken, or in contemplation, for healing the schism, 
for reform, and for the faith — [Causa Unionis, Causa 
Reformations, Causa Fidei : see 1414]. 

The Portuguese pass beyond Cape Bojador, hitherto the 
(usual) limit of exploring knowledge in West Africa, slightly 
south of Morocco. 

English alliance with Burgundy against France. 

Proceedings at Constance. Long discussions on Church 
reform, mainly ineffective. 

Execution of Jerome of Prague. 

Paving of London streets begun (?). 1417 

Frederick of Hohenzollern formally invested with the 
Mark of Brandenburg [see 1415]. 

Election of Cardinal Otto Colonna as Pope Martin V 
(November 11). The last age of the mediaeval Papacy 
begins with him. 

Henry V of England begins the systematic conquest of 1417 

Martin V dissolves the Council of Constance (April 1418), 1418 
having evaded all real measures of Church reform. He 
returns to Rome in May 1418. He does much to restore 
the prosperity and stateliness of the city, and is called by 
flatterers ' the third founder of Rome '. 

Outbreak of the 'Hussite Wars' in Bohemia (1419- 1419 
36), ' the first great military struggle of Protestantism '. 
Burning indignation of Hus's followers at the treatment 
of their leader. 


Hussite demands for the concession of the chalice to 
the laity — hence the name Calixtines [otherwise for Com- 
munion in both kinds, ' sub utraque specie ' — hence the 
name Utraquists] — for free preaching, dsc. 

Terrible results of the war, waged with the utmost 
ferocity on both sides. Wholesale destruction of ancient 
buildings and monuments in Bohemia and neighbouring 

John Ziska and Prokop, the chief Hussite leaders (com- 
manders of genius), win many victories. 

Use of gunpowder, great clumsy cannon, and wagon- 
lagers by the Hussites. 

1418-20 Portuguese discovery and exploration of the Madeiras 
(already imperfectly known ; see 1351). 

Progress of the war in France. English capture of 
Rouen and conquest of Normandy. 

1418-20 Massacre of ' Orleanists ' in Paris (1418). Assassination 
of John [Jean ' sans Peur '], Duke of Burgundy, at Mon- 
tereau, by the ' Armagnacs ' or party of the Dauphin 
(1419). Philip the Good, John's successor, allies with the 
English (Treaty of Troyes, 1420). 

1419 Foundation of the University of Rostock, in N. Ger- 

1420 Treaty of Troyes (May 21). Henry V, recognized as 
regent and heir of France, marries Catherine, daughter 
of Charles VI. On the death of Charles VI the two crowns 
are to be for ever united in the person of Henry V and his 
successors. English and Burgundians masters of Paris. 

1421-2 Brilliant successes of the Bohemian Hussites, led by 
Ziska, against Roman Catholic crusaders. Sigismund — 
now (from 1419) King of Bohemia, as well as Emperor — 
himself defeated. 

1421 The banker Giovanni (John) de' Medici acquires 

PERIOD XXVII : 1415-53 201 

supreme power in Florence, and practically subverts the 
republic, founding the rule of his family in its place. 

Death of Henry V of England. Accession of the infant 1422 
Henry VI. 

Death of Charles VI of France. His son, Charles VII, 
succeeds to the leadership of the national cause in France. 

The Ottoman Turks, who have gradually restored their 1422 
power after Timur's attack, besiege Constantinople afresh. 

Continued successes of the English in France, under 1422-9 
the leadership of the Duke of Bedford. 

Beginning of the University Library at Cambridge. 1425 

Prince Henry, ' the Navigator ', of Portugal, begins the 
settlement of the Madeiras — the beginning of Portuguese 
colonization. This is one of the best starting-points for 
' modern colonial history \ 

Foundation of the University of Louvain, the ' Belgian 1426 
Athens '. 

Progress of the English advance in France. 1428-9 

Siege of Orleans. 

The war in France changed by the appearance of Jeanne 1429 
Dare (' Joan of Arc ', 'La Pucelle ', a peasant girl of 
Domremy in Eastern Champagne, on the Meuse, roused 
by patriotism and religious fervour to save her country). 
She relieves Orleans (April), defeats the English, and 
brings Charles VII in triumph to Rheims, where he is 
crowned (July). 

Death of John Gerson (b. 1363), 'Doctor [Chris- 1429 
tianissimus ', ' Doctor Consolatorius ', the leading spirit 
in the Councils of Pisa and Constance, Chancellor of Paris 
University, 1395-1417 (?). In theology a mystic. The 
later scholasticism repelled him. He was anxious to revive 
the study of the Bible and the Fathers in place of ' unprofit- 
able questions of the Schools '. He is above all famous 


as the great advocate of conservative Church reform, 
through General Councils, who were to be supreme even 
over popes [see 1414-15]. He was bitterly hostile 
to the early Protestantism, and the condemnation and 
execution of Hus was largely due to him. 

1430 Signs of anti-democratic reaction in England (restric- 
tion of county franchise to forty-shilling freeholders). 

1430 City Library of Ratisbon [Regensburg] founded — the 
oldest existing town-library of Germany. 

1430 The Andrea Bianco map of this year indicates the 
Sargasso Sea or Sea of Seaweed, S. of the Azores, in mid- 
Atlantic [see 1448]. 

1431 Jeanne Dare, having fallen into the power of the English, 
is burned as a witch at Rouen. 

1431 Foundation of the University of Poitiers. 

1431-49 Council of Basel, the last of the reforming councils of 
the fifteenth century, and the only result of the Constance 
decree ordering regular and frequent councils. In the 
main it is a failure, and shows the collapse of the reform- 
ing movement. Almost its only achievement is the com- 
promise with the Hussites [see 1433]. 

1431-9 Portuguese re-discovery and earliest colonization of the 
Azores or * Hawk Islands ' — sighted by Europeans, prob- 
ably Genoese, in the fourteenth century, but hitherto 
uninhabited and but slightly known. This group is fully 
one-third of the way to America [Lisbon — Florida]. 

1433 The Council of Basel concludes an agreement (the Prague 
Compactata) with the moderate Hussites, granting their 
chief demands — the cup to the laity in the Communion ; 
free preaching ; exemption from Ecclesiastical Courts. 

The extreme Hussites reject the compact and are cut to 
pieces (1433-6). 

PERIOD XXVII : 1415-53 203 

About this time, highest importance of the Secret 1430-60 
Tribunals (Vehmgerichte, Femgerichte) in Germany. 

Death of the Duke of Bedford. 1435 

The Duke of Burgundy breaks off the English alliance 1435 
and joins France. (Death-blow to English hopes of French 

Growth of the power of Burgundy at the expense both 
of France and the Empire, favoured, since 1415 — 

(a) By the English attack upon France. 

(6) By the Hussite troubles and German disasters. 

The Portuguese begin again [see 1415-16] a vigorous 1434-6 
advance to the south (along West Africa) beyond the" 
farthest known. Coasting of the Sahara begun. 

The French recover Paris, and gradually win great part 1436 
of the north of France (much of Normandy, &c). End 
of the Hussite Wars. 

Foundation of the University of Caen, Normandy, under 1437 
English auspices (re-founded under French auspices, 1452). 
Foundation of All Souls College, Oxford (library, 1443). 1437 

About this time the English Privy Council again loses 1437-40 
connexion with Parliament, and is nominated entirely by 
the Crown (another indication of anti-democratic reaction). 

Edinburgh finally becomes the capital of Scotland, displac- c. 1437 
ing Perth, &c. 

Portuguese failure to conquer Tangier. 1437 

The House of Hapsburg again comes to the Imperial 1438 
throne in Germany, and retains it from this time till the 
extinction of the Holy Roman Empire (1806) [or at least 
till 1740, and the death of Charles VI, the last direct 
Hapsburg, after which, through Maria Theresa, the Haps- 
burg -Lorraine House succeeds]. 

Beginning of modern standing armies with the Ordinance 1439 


of Orleans (institution of regular companies, and abolitioi 
of the ' free companies ') in France. 

1440 King's College, Cambridge, founded by Henry VT [the 
chapel, the ' glory of Cambridge ', one of the finest Gothic 
choirs in the world, is begun six years later]. 

1441-2 Progress of the Portuguese discoveries along West 
Africa. The first slaves and gold dust brought home from 
the Sahara coast (Northern Guinea). Beginnings of the 
modern slave-trade. 

1443 Copenhagen becomes the royal residence of the Danish 
kings and the capital of Denmark. 

1444 Crusade against the Ottoman Turks, led by ' Ladislaus ' 
[Wladislaw], King of Hungary and Poland, and John 
Huniades, the Hungarian hero, utterly defeated at Varna, 
on the Black Sea, by Murad [' Amurath '] II. This is the 
last serious attempt to save Christian Constantinople, which 
is now left to its fate. The migration of Byzantines, 
especially scholars and men of letters, to Western Europe 
becomes more and more notable, and greatly helps the 
Classical Renaissance, especially in Italy. 

' Ladislaus ' having perished at Varna [' Hungarians, 
behold the head of your king '], Huniades is appointed 
Regent of Hungary (1444-52). 

1444 Beginnings of the University Library of Oxford, through 
the gifts of Duke Humphrey of Gloucester (refounded by 
Sir Thomas Bodley in 1602, and since known as the 
' Bodleian '). 

1444-5 The Portuguese, coasting West Africa, pass beyond the 
Sahara shore, and reach the Senegal and the real negro land, 
south of the desert. They round Cape Verde, the western- 
most point of Africa. 

Progress of their exploration and colonization in the 
Azores and Madeiras. 

PERIOD XXVII : 1415-53 205 

They also begin the exploration of the Sahara interior. 
Prince Henry fails in his repeated efforts to secure the 
Canaries for Portugal, through the opposition of Castile. 

Death of Brunelleschi, the architect (builder of the dome 1444 
of Florence Cathedral). 

The Portuguese reach the neighbourhood of Sierra 1445-6 
Leone, and begin to advance eastwards (towards the 
Indies, as they hope). 

Chapel of King's College, Cambridge, commenced [see 1446 
1440], finished 1515. 
Town Hall of Louvain commenced (finished 1463). 1447 

Pontificate of Nicolas V. Bloom of the Classical Renais- 1447-55 
sance in Italy. 

The Portuguese further organize their African slave- c. 1448 
trade and build their first fort, factory, and mission station 
at Arguin Island in Northern Guinea, near Cape Blanco. 

The Andrea Bianco map of 1448 contains delineation 
of land WSW. of Cape Verde, which has been [wrongly] 
conjectured to indicate a discovery of S. America about 
this time [see 1430]. It is probably an imaginary island. 

The war in France, after thirteen to fourteen years of 1449 
inaction or practical truce, is vigorously renewed by the 
French, who reconquer most of Normandy. 

About this time, beginning of Hurstmonceaux Castle, C. 1450 
a typical example of the transition from castle to mansion 
in W. Europe. 

Rebellion of Jack Cade — a fresh Jacquerie or peasant 1450 
insurrection — in England (partly a result of the French 

The Town Hall of Brussels practically completed (begun 1450 

Nicolas V begins (the present) St. Peter's, Rome. But 1450 
work is now only begun. The main part of the church is 


of the next century. Nicolas V plans also a vast extension 
of the Vatican Palace, and is the refounder of the Vatican 
Library in its present form. The Papal library can be 
traced back, however, at least to the middle of the fifth 
century [see c. 450] ; it was at the Lateran Palace till the 
Avignon captivity (1309-78), and only after the return 
from Avignon is fixed at the Vatican. 

c. 1450 Invention of Modern Printing (i. e. printing by movable 
types, &c.) at Mainz by John Gutenberg (Gensfleisch) and 

1450 A Catalan map of this year suggests a great southern 
projection for Africa, as in the Laurentian Portolano of 
1351, — and in fact. 

1451 Accession of Sultan Mahomet II, the captor of Con- 

1452 Last coronation of an emperor at Rome [Frederick III, 
sometimes reckoned as Frederick IV]. 

1440-53 Fresh beginnings of the Royal Library of France [now 
Bibliotheque Nationale] under Charles VII. The old Biblio- 
theque Royale had been carried to England by the Duke 
of Bedford and dispersed. 

1453 End of the Hundred Years' War between France and 
England, with the complete defeat of the English, and their 
final expulsion from all their possessions in France (except 
Calais and the small territory adjacent). Talbot, Earl 
of Shrewsbury, is defeated and killed at the battle 
ofj Castillon (on the frontier of Guienne and Perigord). 
Surrender of Bordeaux and all the south-west ; the rest 
of France had been already recovered by the French 

The greatness of France begins afresh, to be interrupted 
by the Italian Wars and the Religious Civil Wars [1494- 

PEBIOD XXVII : 1415-53 207 

In England the disastrous close of the Hundred Years' 
War is largely responsible for the Wars of the Roses, and 
the discrediting of the old Parliamentary Liberalism, 
especially in its more recent and advanced forms — 'the 
Lancastrian experiment '. Thus it leads to the New 
Monarchy of Edward IV, Richard III, and the Tudors. 

Final siege and capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman 1453 
Turks under Mahomet II. [' One God in Heaven, and one 
Lord on earth, and I am that Lord.'] 

Flight of Byzantine (Greek-speaking) scholars, &c, to 
W. Europe. 

Beginning of the great age of the Classical Renaissance 
in Italy (to a less extent in Germany, France, and Eng- 
land, &c). 

The fall of Constantinople is among the foremost of 
the events that mark the end of the Middle Ages, just 
as the foundation of the city is one of the events that 
mark the passing of the Ancient Civilization. 



Once more, remarkable changes are visible [see General 
View . . . about 1303]. 

Mediaeval Civilization has begun to pass into Modern. 
The power of the Church, though still immense, is now 
weakened. On the surface, its splendour and prosperity 
are little impaired — not so its real hold upon the races 
and the thought of Christendom. Those aspects, or 
products, of Mediaeval Civilization specially favoured by 
the Church — e.g. the Monastic System, the -Scholastic 
Philosophy, the Orders of Chivalry — have lost ground, and 
are passing out of fashion. Ideas and tendencies rootedly 
hostile to the Mediaeval Church have developed — especially 
that love and imitation of pre-Christian Classical Antiquity 
which inspire the Classical Renaissance. Largely through 
the assistance of this spirit, Free Thought has also revived. 

A disposition towards unbounded inquiry and criticism 
is developed in the fifteenth century, more than at any 
earlier time in human history. Mediaeval forgeries and 
blunders begin to be exposed. Mediaeval assumptions are 
everywhere challenged. Men begin to treat the Schoolmen 
and their system with contempt. The last phase of Scholas- 
ticism passes into Mysticism. Monasticism becomes 
unpopular : monasteries decay for want of support. An 
early type of definite Protestantism has appeared (e.g. 
in Wy cliff e and Hus) — identical in all essential respects 
with one or other of the leading Protestant schools of the 
sixteenth century. Despite fierce struggles, this early 
Protestantism survives in certain quarters. In some 
quarters a neo-Paganism begins to be cultivated. Neo- 
Classicism is dominant in Literature and Art. 

The New Literatures of the West have made much pro- 


gress since the opening of the fourteenth century. Dante, 
Boccaccio, Chaucer, and others have shown what the New 
Languages can do. 

The growth of Classicism, though in certain respects very 
injurious, is unable to stop the growth of these New 
Languages and Literatures. In some ways it even stimu- 
lates the latter remarkably. 

The interest in Nature has strengthened and deepened. 
Natural Science, by the middle of the fifteenth century, is 
really far more advanced than at any earlier period in 
history — the ' scientific spirit ' far more awakened and 

The widespread use of the mariner's compass, the dis- 
covery of gunpowder, the development of firearms, the 
invention of printing, the improvement in the manufacture 
of paper, are among the chief results of this advance, 
which powerfully aids the Classical Renaissance, the new 
Free Thought, and to a large extent even the Protestant 
Reformation (suspicious and often hostile as the latter is 
at heart towards the scientific spirit). 

The arts of Painting and Sculpture, especially the former, 
are awakened to new life by the Classical Revival. The 
masterpieces of antiquity are rivalled, approached, or 
surpassed. The ' supreme pictorial age ' begins. Archi- 
tecture in Northern Europe passes into the latest and 
most sumptuous varieties of ' Gothic ' or ' Pointed ' : 
everything suggests the coming abandonment of this style 
and the coming imitation of Classical models. In Southern 
European buildings the Classical Revival is already winning 
the day. 

The economic development of Christendom (since 1300) 
has been unequal. On the whole, the wealth and material 
civilization of Europe have advanced. But most of the 
Commercial Republics and Free Cities of Italy have now 
(by 1450) seen their best days. Many of them have already 

1765 p 


fallen under the rule of despots. Far greater commercial 
prosperity and vitality are to be seen in Northern Europe, 
especially in Flanders. 

Over much of Europe — e.g. in France, England, Italy, 
Spain, Portugal, Russia, the Balkan Peninsula — the free 
life of earlier time is now cut short. The end of the Middle 
Ages, the beginning of Modern History, is an era of ' New 
Monarchy '. Strong centralized governments more and 
more rule the organized nationalities, which have taken 
or are taking shape. Allied or related peoples coalesce 
under one dynasty — as in the cases of Poland-Lithuania, 
Denmark-Sweden-Norway, or various Russian princi- 
palities under Moscow [Castile -Ar agon union comes but 
a few years later ; that of England and Scotland, after 
another century and a half of conflict and approximation]. 

The European overland expansion has ended in ruin — 
mainly through the break-up of the Mongol Empire, the 
conversion of the Western Tartars to Islam, and the fresh 
progress of the Muhammadan Turks under new leaders, 
the Ottomans. 

But the overland movement is replaced by that oversea. 
Beginning while the former is in full vigour, the latter 
only acquires decisive importance in the fifteenth century, 
under Portuguese leadership, after the collapse of the 
overland experiment. By 1450 considerable progress has 
been made in ths exploration of the Atlantic, and in the 
discovery of the ocean route round Africa to Asia. Canaries, 
Madeiras, Azores, have been colonized ; Sierra Leone has 
been reached ; the Equator closely approached. Every- 
thing is prepared for the revelations of the next age — the 
Cape of Good Hope, the Indian Ocean, America. 

In the separate states of Christendom the effects of these 
changes are no less clear : 

The PAPACY, degraded by the Avignon captivity and 
the long subservience to France, is further injured and 


humiliated by the Great Schism which immediately follows 
the return from Avignon. It is also weakened by the 
outbreak of powerful anti-Church religious movements, 
especially in England and Bohemia. The Conciliar Move- 
ment of Reform threatens to subjugate it to a permanent 
series of representative Church Assemblies. Delivered from 
the schism by the Council of Constance, the Papacy, by 
skilful diplomacy, gets the better of the Council, makes 
truce with Bohemian Protestantism, and is apparently 
victorious over English Wycliffism. But this victory is 
never complete. At the end of the Middle Ages the Papacy 
becomes intimately allied with the Classical Revival, an 
alliance which produces unexpected and disastrous results 
in the semi-paganizing of the Roman see and court. 
Here is a main cause of the great Protestant revolt of 
the sixteenth century, and, in its turn, of the Catholic 

The EASTERN EMPIRE, after a long and slow decay 
[1204-1453], has become the prey of the Ottoman Turks. 
The fall of Constantinople produces vital effects on culture, 
as on politics. 

The WESTERN EMPIRE, now permanently associated 
with the House of Hapsburg, Vienna, and the Duchy of 
Austria, has now lost its hold almost altogether on Bur- 
gundy and the other imperial possessions of the Burgundian 
House (e.g. in the Netherlands). Its hold over Italy is 
now (1450) a distant memory. In GERMANY itself the 
imperial unity has really disappeared. The German king- 
dom tends steadily towards a loose agglomeration of 
practically independent states, under the permanent but 
ineffective headship of Austria. In the separate states 
the local rulers gradually become all-powerful. Though 
many of the cities are still remarkably rich and prosperous, 
political feudalism is generally and fatally in the ascendant. 
The expansion of the Germanic race is checked [in the 



fifteenth century] by Slavonic revival : the Teutonic Order, 
like the Hanseatic League, is now declining. 

Among the other European states — 

FRANCE has been checked for more than a century 
by the Hundred Years' War [1338-1453]. At the opening 
of this struggle she already seemed the first power in 
Western Christendom : at the end she is about to be 
rivalled, and for a time surpassed, by the new Spain [the 
Castile-Aragon monarchy]. Though terribly exhausted 
by the war with England, she has finally got the better 
of her old enemy, on her own soil. From all the old French 
land, practically, the English have been expelled. In 
Southern Burgundy the French kingdom has made important 
advances beyond old limits. In Northern Burgundy and 
the north-east she is still threatened [like the Empire] with 
the growth of the new 'Middle State' of the Dukes of 
Burgundy. (This menace proves only temporary.) In- 
ternally, the French crown has for the time lost some of 
its power. The noblesse emerges with new strength from 
the Hundred Years' War. A fresh struggle is needed for 
the complete and final victory of the royal power. 

ENGLAND, after brilliant successes, has been finally 
defeated in her attempts at continental empire. The 
shock of the French disasters is a chief cause of the break- 
down, or suspension, of her constitutional developments, 
and even, for a brief interval, of so much of her political 
order and stability. Something of the anarchy of Stephen's 
time seems, on the surface, to return in the Wars of the 
Roses. The Middle Ages [by 1453] leave England apparently 
more weakened and depressed than at any time since 
Edward II. Yet her continental victories [Crecy, &c], 
politically fruitless, are of high moral value. The final 
failure of the fifteenth century in France helps to turn 
her towards the true path of her development — maritime 
power, oversea development, world-wide trade, colonial 


empire. The national wealth and material prosperity 
steadily increase throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth 

In ITALY most of the Commercial Republics and Free 
Cities have fallen under despots or foreign rulers. Yet the 
1 tyranny ' of the Medici in Florence brings the city to the 
zenith of its material prosperity, culture, and power : 
the rule of Aragon in Naples and Sicily is welcomed after 
the brief interval of French rule : Milan is never more 
important, politically, than under the Visconti and Sforza. 
Even Venice, which retains her republican constitution, 
becomes a far stricter oligarchy : she also is at her ' noon- 
day ' in the fifteenth century. 

Every Italian state, almost, is now [c. 1450] pervaded 
by the Classical Revival, with its worship of ancient 
models in literature, art, and manners ; its ' endeavour to 
reconstitute man as a free being', not as the servant of 
a theological system ; its passionate appreciation of the 
present life and the visible world. The darker side of al 
this becomes clearer in the next age. 

In SPAIN there has been no great political change 
since the opening of the fourteenth century, except for the 
decisive assertion of Portuguese independence under the 
House of Aviz. The maritime and colonial expansion of 
Portugal in the Atlantic and along West Africa under 
Prince Henry the Navigator, and the growth of Aragon 
as a Mediterranean power, especially in Italy, belong 
rather to general history. The formation of the great 
Spanish monarchy by the union of Castile and Aragon 
belongs to the next generation and the next two decades. 
The old free institutions are now [c. 1450] rapidly and 
permanently declining in all the Spanish states. 

The SCANDINAVIAN STATES have been united by 
the Union of Kalmar, but Sweden is already showing 
signs of restlessness, foreshadowing the rupture of the 


Union in the next century. Thus a unique political oppor- 
tunity is lost. But at the close of the Middle Ages [c. 1453] 
the joint monarchy, under the Danish kings, is one of the 
European ' Great Powers ' . Even here the tendency towards 
1 New Monarchy ' is traceable. 

HUNGARY is at the height of its power and prosperity 
throughout the latest Middle Ages, and acts as the true 
leader of all effective European resistance to the Ottoman 
Turks at this time. Hungarian sovereignty, or supremacy, 
is repeatedly asserted over various neighbouring states : 
the Hungarian kingdom is a dangerous menace to Venice. 
No one in 1453 could have readily foreseen the ruin of 
Hungary in the next century. 

POLAND, united with LITHUANIA since the end of 
the fourteenth century, victorious over the Teutonic 
Knights at the beginning of the fifteenth, aggrandized by 
vast acquisitions from Western Russia, has become [c. 
1450] in area of territory perhaps the largest of Christian 
states, and seemingly one of the strongest and most 
influential. But, socially and constitutionally, the internal 
weakness of Poland is in contrast to her apparent political 
and military power. The Polish ' Republic ', hampered 
by the elective kingship and by an omnipotent parliament 
or diet of notables, tends more and more to feudalization, 
to the destruction of the central power by the nobles and 
gentry, and to the degradation and oppression of the 
lower classes by the landowners, great and small. 

The RUSSIAN STATES, so long the prey of Tartars, 
Lithuanians, Poles, and others, since the Mongol conquest 
in the thirteenth century, have begun in the fourteenth 
to find a new national centre in Moscow. Slowly but 
steadily their history in the fifteenth has moved towards 
independence and recovery in the East. But the Tartar 
suzerainty has not yet been thrown off [by 1453], although 
this event will be one of the features of the next genera- 


tion [1480]. Russia, except the western half conquered by 
Poland- Lithuania, will be reunited under Moscow [1471] 
before emancipation from the Mongol is fully achieved. 
Taught by the lessons of the past, the Moscow princes 
evolve, and the Russian people submit to, a centralized 
autocratic monarchy of the strictest type. This at least 
ensures safety from the democratic and oligarchic disorders 
and schisms which had ruined the old free Russia. 

Lastly, in the South-East, the Ottoman TURKS have 
already [by 1453] established a Muhammadan despotic 
empire in Europe — as in Asia — as extensive as the Byzan- 
tine in the days of its power. In the next century [1450- 
1570] this dominion is destined to vast extension : it 
seems for a moment to threaten Christendom, like the 
early Saracens. Yet its power, under the ablest Sultans, 
is greater in appearance than in reality ; its administra- 
tion and organization, except for war, are so defective that 
its military successes are often hampered or nullified. 
But as a fighting state it is, for the time, very formidable ; 
not till the end of the seventeenth century is it clearly 
unable to cope with the best Christian armies, even for 

In the Far East of Europe and in Upper Asia the 
TARTAR empires have passed away, leaving only frag- 
ments which will soon pass under the rule of new and 
restored states and races. Thus Moscovite Russia will 
soon [after 1453] repudiate the overlordship of the Golden 
Horde, and then subjugate the khanates into which the 
Horde is broken. 

Looking back to the opening of the eleventh century 
[c. 1000] or to the fall of the old Roman Empire in the 
West [e. 410-76], the decisive progress of the chief Euro- 
pean races is clear enough in almost every field of civiliza- 
tion. The new nations, enjoying a life on the whole so 
much more healthy, free, and progressive than that of the 


Roman world, have through many trials grown to manhood. 
And they are now [c. 1450] at the beginning of unlimited 
development. The barriers of ancient knowledge have 
been broken through in every direction. Europeans have 
begun to traverse the oceans and continents beyond their 
own homes, taking with them their race and politics and 
culture, and preparing for the European domination of 
the entire world. New inventions have made or are 
making a revolution in natural science, and giving man — 
European man — a control over nature unknown before. 
This advance will in time produce fundamental changes 
in the conditions and possibilities of life. A second-rate 
European power of recent centuries, especially of the 
last two or three generations, overmatches in military 
strength the whole empire of the Caesars. The conveniences, 
appliances, and luxuries of the most modern era would be 
difficult of belief to past ages. Nowhere is this more 
apparent than in economic development. How can the 
commerce of the classical or the mediaeval civilization, 
at its most prosperous epochs, be compared with that of 
the present ? Before the end of the Middle Ages Europeans 
of the Christian civilization had already expressed them- 
selves in the new literatures and in art with as much 
wisdom, taste, and genius as in the best ages of Hellas, 
India, or Rome. And here, as elsewhere, mediaeval develop- 
ment is followed, and in many ways surpassed, by ' modern 
times ' — with all their faults and evils, the ' crown of 
history \ 


ADDITIONAL NOTE TO 1164 [p. 123] 

By the Constitutions of Clarendon, clause 3 : 'A Clerk 
accused of any matter, when summoned by the king's 
justiciar, shall come into his court, and there answer for 
what it shall seem good to the king's court that he should 
answer for there, and in the Church court for what it shall 
seem good that he should answer for there : so that the 
king's justiciar shall send into the Church court to see 
how the case is there tried, and if the clerk shall be con- 
victed, the Church ought not to defend him further.' 


Aachen (' Aix-la-Chapelle '), 61, 
80, 119, 135. 

Abbasid Dynasty, 52-3. 

Abdurrahman I, 52, 55. 

Abdurrahman III, 52, 72, 74. 

Abelard, 115, 117-18. 

Abu Bakr, Abubekr, 44. 

Abyssinia, 30. 

Adelard of Bath, 143. 

Adolf, Count of Schauenburg, 115. 

Adrian, see Hadrian. 

Adrianople, 9, 180. 

Alfred, Alfred the Great, 63, 66, 

^thelflsed, 74. 

aithelfrith, 38. 

^Ethelstan, 74-5. 

Aetius, 16. 

Affonso Henriques, 117, 119. 

Akba, 47. 

Alaric, 11-12, 15, 17. 

Albert the Bear, 115, 118. 

Albert the Great, 154. 

Alboin, 36. 

Alcuin, 51, 54, 58. 

Alessandria, 124. 

Alexander III 122, 124. 

Alfonso I, 53. 

Alfonso VI of Castile, 105. 

Alfonso X of Castile, 147. 

Al Mansur (' Almanzor '), 79-80, 

Almohades, 129. 

Amain, 47, 91. 

Ambrose, 9. 

Anastasius, 24. 

Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain, 
16, 23-4, 32-4, 36-9. 

Anglo-Saxon States, see Northum- 
brian Mercia, Wessex, &c. 

Anselm, St., 112. 

Anskar (Ansgar), 58-9. 

Anthemios of Tralles, 31. 

Antony of the Thebaid, 5. 

Aquileia, 17: 

Arcadius, 10-11. 
Arius, Arianism, 3, 6, 8, 33. 
Arnold of Brescia, 117, 122. 
Arnulf of Carinthia, 39. 
Artevelde, James and Philip van. 

175, 187. 
Assassins, 90. 
Atabeg of Mosul, 118. 
Athanasius, 3, 6. 
Athaulf, 15, 17. 
Attalus, 17. 
Attila, 8, 16-17. 

Augustine of Canterbury, St., 37. 
Augustine of Hippo, St., 13. 
Avars, 35, 37, 39, 41, 55. 
' Averroes ', 130. 

Bacon, Roger, 135, 150. 

Baeda, Bede, 51. 

Baghdad, 53, 55, 57. 

' Bajazet ' (Bayazid), 189-91. 

Baldwin I, 111. 

Ball, John, 181. 

Basel, Basle, 202. 

Basil I, 66. 

Basil II, 79-80, 91-2. 

Belisarius, 28-9, 33. 

Benedict, St., Benedictine Order, 

Benedict XI, 167. 
Benjamin of Tudela, 123. 
Berlin, 179. 

Bernard, St., 113, 116-18. 
Bernhard of Askania, 125. 
Bertha, 37. 

Bertrand de Born, 131. 
Black Death, 176. 
Boccaccio, 182. 
Boleslaw I, 83. 
Bologna, 106, 112. 
Boniface (Winifrith), ' Apostle of 

Germanv ', 48, 51, 52-3. 
Boniface VIII, 160-1, 167-8,170-1. 
Boniface IX, 189. 
Bordeaux, 182, 206. 



Brandenburg, 74, 115, 178-9, 

Bretigny, 180, 182. 

Bruce, 167, 169. 

Brunelleschi, 205. 

Bruno of Toul, 94 ; see Leo IX. 

Bulgaria, Bulgarians, 58, 79-80,91. 

Burgh, Hubert de, see Hubert. 

Burgundians, 12, 19, 22. 

Byzantine or East Roman Empire, 
see Roman Empire, Constanti- 

Cade, Jack, 205. 

Caedmon, 47. 

Caliphate §f Baghdad, 52-3, 100. 

Caliphate of Cordova, 52, 72, 74, 

83, 84, 92. 
Carloman, 53. 
Carolingian, or Karling House, 39, 

42-3, 47, 50, 52, 71, 80. 
Carpini, 142-3. 
Carthusian Order, 104. 
Charles the Bald, 60, 66. 
Charles the Fat, 68-9. 
Charles the Great ' (Charlemagne ' ), 

10, 53-7. 
Charles Martel, 42, 48-9, 51. 
Charles the Simple, 69. 
Charles IV, Emperor, 176, 178. 
Charles IV of France, 131. 
Charles V of France, 131, 182, 186. 
Charles VI of France, 131, 189. 
Charles VII of France, 201, 206. 
Charles IX of France, 131. 
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 171, 191. 
Chingiz ('Jenghiz', ' Ghenghiz '), 

133, 136, 139. 
Chosroe8 the Just, 30. 
Chosroes the Younger, 37. 
Christiania (Opslo), 98, 190. 
Chrysostom, St. John, 11. 
Cimabue, 159. 
Cistercians, 110, 113. 
Claudian, 11, 13. 
Claudius of Turin, 59. 
Clement II, 94. 
Clement IV, 150. 
Clement V, 167-8. 
Clovis, 24. 

Cluny, Cluniacs, &c, 71, 94-5, 104. 
Cnut, 90-3. 
Cologne, 178, 179, 181. 

Columba, St., 32, 37. 

Columban, 39. 

Conrad II, 92. 

Conrad III, 116, 118. 

Conrad IV, 147. 

Conrad of Wettin, 115, 118. 

Conradin, 149. 

Constance, 126, 194-6, 198-9. 

'Constantine, Donation of, 54, 64. 

Constantino the Great, 2-5. 

Constantine V, 54. 

Constantine VI, 55. 

Constantinople, passim in many 
sections ; see esp. pp. 4, 9-10, 24, 
27 &c, 31, 36, 39, 41, 46, 49, 
78, 100, 110, 132, 148, 178, 189, 
191, 204, 206-7. 

Constantius, 5, 6. 

Copenhagen, 180, 204. 

Cordova, see Caliphate of Cordova, 

Cosmas, 33. 

Count Palatine of the Rhine, 178. 

Cracow, 170, 181, 191. 

Cyril of Alexandria, St., 13. 

Cyril of Jerusalem, St., 13. 

Cyril, Apostle of Slavs, St., 65. 

Danes, Denmark, 71, 80, 84, 90-3, 
180-1, 190 ; see also Norway, 
Margaret, Kalmar, &c. 

Dante, 158, 160, 171. 

Decretals, False, 63-4 

Diocletian, 4, 5. 

Dizabul, 36. 

Donation of Pippin, 52. 

Duns Scotus, 149, 168. 

Dunstan, St., 75. 

Eadgar, 75. 
Eadmund, 75. 
Eadmund Ironside, 90. 
Eadred, 75. 

Eadward the Elder, 71, 74. 
Eadwine, 39, 44. 
Ecgberht, Egbert, King, 58-9. 
Ecgberht, Egbert, Archbishop, 51. 
Edward I of England, 168. 
Edward II, 168, 169, 212. 
Edward III, 168, 183, 187. 
Einhard, 54. 
Eirene, 55. 

English, Engle, 16; see Anglo* 
Saxon Conquest, Saxons. 



Eric the Red, 80, 84. 
Erigena, John Scotus, 68. 
Eusebius, 5. 

Fatimites, 90. 

Ferdinand III of Castile, St., 

France,French, see Verdun,! 'ranks, 

Charles the Bald, Louis VI, VII, 

IX, Philip Augustus, Philip the 

Fair, Suger, &c. 
Francis of Assisi, St., 134, 136. 
Franciscan Order, 134, 136, 147, 

156, 175-6. 
Franks, Frankish race, Frankish 

Empire, 11-12, 19, 22, 23-4, 

32, 35-6, 39, 42-3, 47-9, 50-6 ; 

see Holy Roman Empire. 
Frederick of Swabia, Frederick I 

(Barbarossa), Emperor, 118-19. 
Frederick II, Emperor, 135, 139- 

Frederick III, Emperor, 206. 
Frederick III of Hohenzollern, 153. 
Frederick VI of Hohenzollern, 198. 

Genoa, 153-4, 156, 175, 177, 187. 

Genseric (Gaiseric), 16. 

Gepids, 35. 

Gerald de Barri, 139. 

Gerbert, Sylvester II, 84. 

Gerson, John, 194, 201-2. 

Germany, Germans, see Goths, 
Franks, Burgundians, Saxons, 
&c. ; Alaric, Theodoric, Chvis, 
&c. ; Charles the Great, &c. ; 
Henry the Fowler ; Otto I, II, 
III ; Henry II, III, IV, V, VI, 
VII ; Frederick I, II ; Conrad 
II, III, &c. 

Giotto, 158. 

Giraldus Cambrensis, see Gerald 
de Barri. 

Glaber, Ralph, 93. 

Glendower, see Owen Glendower. 

Gnesen, 74, 170-1 

Godfrey of Bouillon, 111. 

Goths, Gothic race, 11-12, 14-16, 
28-9, 48. 

Gower, 189. 

Gregory I ('the Great'), Pope, 

Gregory II, 64. 

Gregory VI, 95. 

Gregory VII, Hildebrand, 94-5, 

101, 103, 104, 106, 107, 124. 
Gregory X, 152. 
Gregory XI, 183. 
Gutenberg, John, 206. 

Hadrian I, 54. 

Hadrian IV, 122. 

Hakim Biamrillah, 89. 

Hansa, Hanseatic League, 147, 

151, 178-80, 181-2. 
Harald Fairhair, 64-5. 
Harald Hardrada, 98, 100. 
Harold, son of Godwine, 97, 100. 
Harun-ar-Rashid, 55. 
Hedwig, 188. 
Helena, 2. 
Henry I of Germany ( ' the Fowler ' ), 

Henry II of Germany, Emperor, 

Henry III of Germany, Emperor, 

93-5, 97-8. 
Henry IV of Germany, Emperor, 

98, 101-3, 112. 
Henry V of Germany, Emperor, 

Henry VI of Germany, Emperor, 

Henry VII of Germany, Emperor, 

Henry I of England, 111-12. 
Henry II of England, 119-20, 

Henry III of England, 138, 141, 

Henry IV of England, 190. 
Henry V of England, 193, 198-9, 

Henry VI of England, 201. 
Henry the Lion, of Saxony, &c, 

124, 125, 129-30. 
Henry the Navigator, 213. 
Heraclius, 39, 41. 
Hermann of Salza, 139. 
Hildebrand, see Gregory VII. 
Hincmar of Rheims, 64. 
Hohenzollern House, 153, 198. 
Holy Roman Empire, 55-8, 60-1, 

68-9, 76, 80, 82, 83-4, 86-7, 91, 

92-4, 96-8, 101-4, 112, 113, 



115, 116, 119, 126, 129, 130, 

134, 135, 137, 144, 147-8, 153, 

164, 168-9, 172, 178, 191, 193-4, 

198-9, 206, 211-12. 
Honorius, Emperor, 10, 11, 15. 
Honorius III, Pope, 138. 
Hospital, Order of (St. John), 91, 

Hrolf (Rollo), 71. 
Hubert de Burgh, 141. 
Hugh Capet, 80. 
Hugh de Payens, 113. 
Hungary, Hungarians (Magyars), 

69, 72, 74-5, 82, 84, 93, 142, 

175, 182, 189, 204. 
Huniades, John, 204. 
Huns, 14, 16-17. 
Hus, John, 190, 196, 198. 

Iceland, 55, 66. 

Iconoclasts, 49-50, 54-5. 

Ida, 32. 

Imad-ud-Din Zangi, 118. 

Innocent II, 115. 

Innocent III, 130, 133, 134, 136, 

Innocent IV, 142. 
Irish Church and civilization, 32, 

49, 55. 
Isaurian Dynasty, 49-50, 51, 

Isidore of Seville, 44. 
Ismailians, Ismailism, 90. 
Ivan Kalita, 172. 

'Jagellon', ' Jagellons ' (Yagielo), 

James ('the Conqueror') of Ara- 

gon, 140. 
Jeanne Dare ('Joan of Arc'), 

John, King of England, 133, 138. 
John II, King of France, 177. 
John the Great, King of Portugal, 

John of Cappadocia, 28. 
John XII, Pope, 76, 78. 
John XXII, Pope, 171. 
John XXIII, Pope, 194, 198. 
John Tzimiskes, see Tzimiskes. 
Jovian, Emperor, 6. 
Julian, Emperor, 1, 5-6. 
Justin I, Emperor, 24, 28. 

Justin II, Emperor, 36. 
Justinian, Emperor, 27-31, 

Kallinikos, 46. 
Kalmar, 190. 
Kenneth II, 61. 
Khadijah, 40. 
Khalifah, Caliph, 42. 
Kiev, 91, 124. 
Koloman, 111. 
Kuran, Koran, 44. 

'Ladislaus ' I of Hungary, 111. 
' Ladislaus ' IV of Hungary, 204. 
Lambert of Hersfeld, 106. 
Langland, William, 181, 191. 
Langton, Stephen, 133, 136. 
Leif Ericson, 84. 
Leipzig, 193. 

Leo I (' the Great '), Pope, 17. 
Leo III ('the Isaurian '), Emperor, 

42, 49-51. 
Leo IV, Pope, 63. 
Leo IX, Pope, 94, 97-8. 
Leopold of Austria, 188. 
Lewis the Child, 71. 
Lewis the German, 60. 
Lewis ('the Great') of Hungary, 

175, 182. 
Lewis the Pious, 59-60. 
Lewis II, 63. 
Lisbon, 119, 155. 
Lithuania, 185, 188. 
Liudprand (' Luitprand '), 78. 
Lombards, 34, 35-6, 52, 54. 
London, 99, 102, 111, 126, 129, 

138, 179, 193. 
Lothar, Lothair, 60-1, 63. 
Lothair II of Lotharingia, 63. 
Lothair ' of Saxony ', Emperor, 

Louis le Faineant, 80. 
Louis VI of France, 112, 116, 117. 
Louis VII, 116, 118, 119. 
Louis IX, St., 139, 147, 149, 150. 
Liibeck, 125, 178-9. 
Luca della Robbia, 191. 
Lull (Lully), Raymond of, 170. 

'Mahomet' (Prophet), see Muham- 

Mahomet II, Turkish Sultan, 



Mahmud of Ghazni, 84. 

Malachi, Bishop of Armagh, 116. 

Manfred, 149. 

Maniakes, George, 93. 

Manuel Komnenos, 118. 

Map, Walter, 130. 

Marcel, Etienne, 177. 

Marco Polo, see Polo. 

Margaret of Denmark, Queen, 190. 

Margrave, or Elector, of Branden- 
burg (Margraviate, Electorate), 
178, 198-9 ; see also Branden- 
burg, Hohenzollern. 

Marsilio of Padua, 171, 177. 

Martin V, Pope, 199. 

Maurice, Emperor, 37. 

Medici, John de, 200-1. 

Mercia, Mercians, 44-6, 58. 

Merovingian or Merwing Dynasty, 
House of Clovis, 24, 43, 52. 

Methodius, St., 65; see Cyril. 

Mieczyslaw I, 78. 

Milan, 122, 124, 188. 

Montfort, Simon de, 148-9. 

Moscow, 172. 

Muawiyah, 46. 

Muhammad (' Mahomet '), 34, 39- 

Muhammadanism, Islam, 34, 39- 
42, &c, 

Murad II [' Amurath '], 204. 

Musa, 48. 

Narses, 28-9 

Neckam, Alexander, 125. 

Nestorius, Nestorians, Nestorian- 

ism, 21-2, 30, 33. 
Nicaea, Council and Creed of, 3, 

9 ; Empire of, 133, 148. 
Nicolas of Cusa, 191. 
Nicolas I, Pope, 63-6. 
Nicolas V, Pope, 205-6. 
Nikephoros I, 58. 
Nikephoros II (Phokas), 58, 75, 78. 
Normans, Normandy, 71-2, 93-4, 

96-7, 98-106, &c. 
Northumbria, Northumbrians, 

37-9, 41, 46. 
Norway, Norwegians, Northmen, 

54-7, 59-60, 62-3, 64-5, 69-71. 

72, 80, 82-4, 87-9, 90-2, 93-4, 

96-106, &c. : see also Danes, 

Swedes, Harald Fairhair, &c. 

Occam, William of, 176. 

Odo (Eudes), 69. 

Odovakar (Odoacer), 18. 

Olaf, ' the Lap King ', 83. 

Olaf Tryggveson, 83-4. 

Olaf, St., 90, 92. 

Omar, Umar, 44-5. 

Orcagna, 183. 

Ostrogoths, East Goths, 20-1, 

23-4, 28-9. 
Oswald, 44-5. 

Otto I (' the Great '), 10, 75-9. 
Otto II, 80. 
Otto III, 80, 83-4. 
Otto IV (of Brunswick), 130, 134, 

Otto of Bamberg, 115. 
Ourique, 117. 
Owen Glendower, 191. 

Paris, 68, 117-18, 131, 159-60, 177, 

182, 194, 206. 
Paschal II, Pope, 112. 
Patrick, St., 22. 
Paul the Deacon, 54. 
Payens, Hugh de, see Hugh de 

Penda, 44-6. 
Persia, Persians, 30, 34, 36, 37, 38, 

39, 41. 
Peter of Amiens ( 'the Hermit' ), 106. 
Peter Lombard, 123. 
Petrarch, 167, 182. 
Philip II of France ('Augustus'), 

128, 130, 133, 134, 140. 
Philip IV of France (' the Fair '), 

155, 157-60, 167-70. 
Philip of Swabia, 134. 
Phokas, 37. 
Photius, 65. 

Piers Plowman, see Langland. 
Pippin, 51-3. 
Poland, Poles, 78, 83, 141, 188, 

193 ; see also Lithuania, Jagel- 

Ions, Boleslaw, &c. 
Polo, Marco, Nicolo, &c, 148, 150, 

152-3, 156. 
Procopius (Prokopios), Byzantine 

historian, 31. 
Prokop, Hussite general, 200. 

Ravenna, Exarchs of, 29, 52. 
Raymond of Lull, see Lull. 



Recimir, 17. 

Richard Coeur de Lion, 128, 

Richard II, 183, 187, 190. 

Rienzi, 176. 

Robert ' Guiscard ', 98, 103, 104. 

Robert of Jumieges, 97. 

Roger II, 116, 126. 

Rolle, Richard, 176. 

Roman Empire (incl. Western and 
Eastern Empires, but not Later 
Western or Holy Roman Empire, 
which see), passim in many- 
sections; see esp. pp. 1, 7-22, 
24-33, 42, 44-6, 48-51, 55-6, 58, 
66, 75-6, 78-80, 91-2, 93, 96-7, 
101, 103, 118, 132-3, 148, 163-4, 
178, 180, 189, 191, 201, 204, 
206-7, 211. 

Rome, passim in many sections; 
see esp. pp. 3, 4, 9, 11, 28-9, 37, 
52, 54, 56, 63, 76, 83-4, 94-5, 98, 
101, 103-4, 112, 122-4, 130 &c, 
136, 158-61, 167, 169, 176, 183, 
186, 193, 199, 205-6. 

Romulus Augustulus, 17-18. 

Rosamund, 36. 

Roscelin, 115. 

Rubrouck, Rubruquis, 147. 

Rupert, Count Palatine, 191. 

Rutilius Namatianus, 13. 

Saladin, 126, 128. 

Salado, see Tarifa. 

Salamanca, 140, 142. 

Salisbury, 148, 177. 

Saxons, 12, 16, 53-4, 58, 74 &c, 

101, 124-5, 129; see also 

Saxony, 53-4, 58, 74 &c, 101, 

124-5, 129. 
Scandinavians, 54-60, 62-73, 77, 

80, 82-94, 96-8, 104, 144, 190, 

&c. ; see also Danes, Norwegians, 

Schism, the Great, 187, 194, 196, 

Scholasticism, Schoolmen, 53, 112, 

139, 153-4, 176-7- 
Scotland, Scots, 156, 157, 167, 

169, 172. 
Serbia, Serbs, 91, 93, 188. 
Seville, 143, 191; 

Sicily, 59, 93, 116, 126, 139, 149-50, 

Siena,' 140, 142, 171. 

Sigismund, 189, 193-4, 198-9, 

Silesia, 83, 122, 142. 

Simon de Montfort, 148-9. 

Slavs, Slavonic races, 12, 28, 63, 
65, 74, 79, 80, 83, 91, 93, 115, 
118, 122, 124, 138, 139, 141, 
165, 172, 188, 193; see also 
Russia, Russians ; Serbia, Serbs ; 
Poland, Poles, &c. 

Sluys, 175. 

Stephen I of Hungary, St., 84. 

Stilicho, 11. 

Stockholm, 144. 

Strassburg, 60, 154, 186. 

Suger of St. Denys, 112, 117. 

Swabia, Swabians, 74, 102-3, 116. 

Swedes, Sweden, 65, 83-4, 190 ; 
see Scandinavians. 

Swegen Fork-Beard, 84, 90. 

Switzerland, Swiss, 156, 168, 170, 
177, 188. 

Syagrius, 19. 

Sylverius, 33. 

Tarifa, 175. 

Tarik, 48. 

Tauler, Johann, 180. 

Temple, Templars, Order of, 113, 

Teutonic Order, Teutonic Knights, 

139, 141, 168-9, 193. 
Theodora, 31. 
Theodore of Tarsus, 46. 
Theodoric, 24-5. 
Theodosius the Great, 9-10. 
Thomas of Aquino, Thomas 

Aquinas, St., 139, 153, 168. 
Thomas Becket, St., 124. 
Thorfinn Karlsefne, 89. 
Timur, 182, 189, 191, 192. 
Togrul Beg, 98. 
Toledo, 105. 
Toulouse, 134, 140. 
Tours, Battle of, 49. 
Tribonian, 28, 31. 
Troitsa Monastery, 175. 
Trondhjem, 83, 90, 107. 
Troyes, Treaty of, 200. 
Truce of God, 92. 



' Trullan ' Council, 48. 

Turin, Peace of, 187. 

Turks (incl. Saljuks and Otto- 
mans), 30, 34, 36, 84, 93, 97-8, 
100-1, 110, 171, 178, 180, 188-9, 
191, 201, 204, 206-7. 

Tyler, Wat, 186. 

Tzimiskes, John, Emperor, 78-9. 

Ulfilas, 5, 8. 

Ulm, 183. 

Umar, see Omar. 

Umayyad (Omayyad, ' Ommiad ') 

Dynasty, 46, 50, 51, 83, 92. 
Upsala, 65, 153. 
Urban II, 106, 107. 
Urban VI, 186. 

Valencia, 142. 

Valens, 6, 9. 

Valentinian, 6. 

Valladolid, 175. 

Vandals, 11, 14, 16, 20, 28. 

Varna 204. 

Vatican, 186, 206; see .Rome. 

Venice, 47, 120, 125, 127, 132, 

Verdun, Partition of, 60-1, 63. 
Victor IV, 124. 
Vienna, 154, 181. 
Villani, 158. 
Vincennes, 131. 
Vincent of Beauvais, 149. 
Visconti, John Galeazzo, 189. 
Visigoths, West Goths, Visigothic 

States, 15, 19. 
Vladimir of Russia (' the Great '), 

Grand Prince of Kiev, St., 83. 
Vogelweide, Walther von der, 141. 

Waldemar III, 180, 181. 

Waldenses, 124, 134. 

Wales 1 55. 

Wallace, William, 157, 167. 

Walter Map, see Map. 

Warsaw, 170. 

Wat Tyler, see Tyler. 

Welf, 116. 

Wenzel, 191. 

Wessex, West Saxons, 32, 36, 47. 

Westminster, 99, 100, 111. 

William the Conqueror, 96, 100, 

102, 103, 105, 106. 
William of Holland, 143, 147. 
William II, Rufus, 111. 
William of Wykeham, 181, 182, 

183, 186. 
Willibrord, 47. 
Winchester, 102, 182. 
Windsor, 106, 152, 175. 
Winifrith, Winfrith, see Boniface, 

Apostle of Germany. 
Wittenborg, John, 180. 
Wladislaw, see ' Ladislaus '. 
Worms, 113, 114. 
Wulfhere, 46. 

Wycliffe, John, 183-4, 186-7, 190. 
Wykeham, William of, see William 

of Wykeham. 

Yagielo, see Jagellon. 
Yaroslav (' the Great ', ' the Law- 
giver'), 91. 
Yatviga, see Hedwig. 
Ypres, 167. 

Zacharias, 51-2. 

Zeno,East Roman Emperor, 18, 24. 

Ziska, John, 200. 

Printed in England at the Oxford University Press 


2 & 

X 8 

University of Toronto 







DO NOT /? 

53 A 

R 3 



CO «H 

THE \\ 

•H © 

,0 <fi 


o o 


FROM \\ 

•H C 

CO ,o 

w 1 



•43 t 

^ o u 

0) a * 


i a 


« < 


Acme Library Card Pocket 

*d co 

Under Pat. "Ref. Index File"